Clemens Winkler Discovered Germanium Element | Applications of Germanium

Clemens Winkler – discoverer of germanium element

Article on Clemens Winkler

Biography & contributions

Clemens Winkler (Clemens Alexander Winkler, a German chemist born on December 26, 1838 – died on October 08, 1904. Clemens noted for his discovery of germanium periodic table element.

Clemens other important works include investigated the analysis of gases, invented three-way stopcock, and predicted the existence of silicon monoxide.

Facts about silicon monoxide

Silicon monoxide is an amorphous solid which is present in the oxidation state +II. Silicon monoxide’s physical properties include it is brown in powder or pressed form and black in granular or lump form. It is stable at room temperature.

Silicon monoxide coatings are used for optical applications in reflectors, flood lamps, mirrors, jewelry and other products. Silicon monoxide coatings can reduce reflection in the near infrared range or act as interference layers.Silicon monoxide is also ideal for use with ZnS and other materials for reflective coatings. Silicon monoxide layers formed in oxygen atmosphere (Si203) are used for antireflection coatings or interference coatings for ray splitting in the visible range. Silicon monoxide films are used in thin-film capacitors, hybrid circuits, semiconductor components, and other electronic applications.

A variety of insulating and dielectric properties can be achieved by proper selection of Silicon monoxide film thickness. Silicon monoxide is generally prepared by condensing the vapor formed when pure silicon and pure quartz are reacted in a vacuum at high temperatures. The purity of the final Silicon monoxide product is determined by the starting materials and reaction procedures used.

Facts about germanium

Germanium existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. He predicted that the then unknown element germanium should resemble silicon in its properties. Mendeleev suggested the name ekasilicon. His predictions for the properties of germanium are remarkably close to the reality. Germanium was also discovered in a mineral called argyrodite by Clemens Alexander Winkler in 1886. Germanium is created through stellar nucleosynthesis, mostly by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars.

Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing.It is a hard, grayish-white element; it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond.Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid.Germanium is an important semiconductor, mainly used in transistors and integrated circuits.Germanium forms many compounds.Germanium oxide is added to glass to increase the index of refraction.Germanium is widely distributed in ores of other metals, such as zinc, and that which is required for manufacturing purposes is recovered as a by-product from the flue-dusts of zinc smelters.

Silicon-germanium alloys are rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material, for use in high-speed integrated circuits. Germanium dioxide is also used in catalysts for polymerization in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

Inorganic germanium will accumulate inside the body and will impose health hazards after consumed. Organic germanium is reported to be potentially beneficial for health.

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