Rudolf Clausius Formulated Second law of thermodynamics | Coined Term Entropy

# Rudolf Clausius – coined the term entropy

## Biography & contributions

Rudolf Clausius (Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius) was a German physicist and mathematician born on January 02, 1822 – died on Augusts 24, 1888. Clausius was the first person to formulate the second law of thermodynamics and is credited with making thermodynamics a science.

He was credited for the many notable works like first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics, introduced the concept of entropy and a virial theorem which applied to heat.

Clausius deduced the Clausius-Clapeyron relation from thermodynamics. Clausius-Clapeyron relation became the main factor to characterize the phase transition between two states of matter such as solid and liquid. Clausius suggested molecules are made up of continually interchanging atoms and that electric force does not cause but simply directs the interchange.

## Carnot cycle

Carnot cycle can be shown that it is the most efficient cycle for converting a given amount of thermal energy into work, or conversely, creating a temperature difference by doing a given amount of work. A system undergoing a Carnot cycle is called a Carnot heat engine. Every thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. A thermodynamic cycle occurs when a system is taken through a series of different states and finally returned to its initial state. In the process of going through this cycle, the system may perform work on its surroundings, thereby acting as a heat engine.

A heat engine acts by transferring energy from a warm region to a cool region of space and, in the process, converting some of that energy to mechanical work. The cycle may also be reversed. The system may be worked upon by an external force, and in the process, it can transfer thermal energy from a cooler system to a warmer one, thereby acting as a refrigerator or heat pump rather than a heat engine.

## Theory of heat

Theory of heat is related to the mechanical equivalent of heat. Over the next century, with the introduction of the second law of thermodynamics in 1850 by Rudolf Clausius, this theory evolved into the science of thermodynamics.

Theory of heat term was used in the 19th century to describe a number of laws, relations, and experimental phenomenon in relation to heat; those such as thermometry, calorimetry, combustion, specific heat, and discussions as to the quantity of heat released or absorbed during the expansion or compression of a gas, etc.

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