Biochar stable form of charcoal reduce global warming prevents emitting carbon dioxide

Biochar, a new solution to reduce global warming

Category : General Chemicals
Published by : Data Research Analyst, Worldofchemicals.com

Every year the world wide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy need increases, and by the year 2020 the world will produce 33.8 billion metric tons.

 

The emission of carbon dioxide is depends on.


  • Different energy sources
  • Fires
  • Natural carbon cycle
  • Deforestation

 

All the above factors and still some other factors are acting as enhancing factors for green house gases and the effects of global warming.

 

One of the solutions to reduce co2 emissions into environment is the usage of ‘biochar’

 

Biochar


Biochar is a stable form of charcoal produced from heating natural organic materials (crop and other waste, woodchips, manure) in a high temperature, low oxygen process known as pyrolysis. It chemically and biologically in a more stable form than the original carbon form it comes from, making it more difficult to break down.

 

Biochar can increase crop yields while acting as a natural carbon sink. Biochar is considered as the ‘black gold of agriculture.’

 

Biochar can clean the air in the by

 

  • Preventing rotting biomass from releasing harmful co2 into the atmosphere
  • Allowing plants to store the co2 which will come from air
  • Reduce methane and NO2 emissions from soils

 

Biochar incorporation into soil is expected to enhance overall sorption capacity of soils towards anthropogenic organic contaminants (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs, pesticides and herbicides), in a mechanistically different (and stronger) way than amorphous organic matter.

 

Some studies have shown that biochar can aid in

 

  • Retaining nutrients and cation
  • Exchange capacity
  • Decreasing soil acidity
  • Decreased uptake of soil toxins
  • Improving soil structure
  • Nutrient use efficiency
  • Water-holding capacity
  • Decreasing releases of non-CO2
  • Greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O)

 

Production


 

Biochar is most commonly produced by pyrolysis of the biomass. The main technologies for producing biochar are fast, moderate and slow pyrolysis and gasification.

 

Pyrolysis produces between 12 and 35% biochar (dry basis), with slow pyrolysis giving the higher biochar yields.

 

In the initial stage of production the biomass loses water and other residue. Then the residue goes through further pyrolysis and biochar begins to form. Finally the biochar produced begins to decompose forming the carbon rich charcoal used for application.

 

Biomass ->   Water + Unreacted residue

Unreacted residue -> (Volatile + Gases) 1 + (Char) 1

(Char) 1 -> (Volatile + Gases) 2 + (Char) 2

 

 

Gasification occurs at a higher temperature of at least 750°C with a moderate vapor residence time of 10 to 20 seconds and generates approximately 10% biochar (dry basis).

 

Applications


Biochar has a number of specific functions in the natural environment that will be beneficial to prevent global warming and also to increase the functionality of soils. Biochar is used for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

 

Greenhouse gases will be removed from the atmosphere, with every unit of biochar that is in production.


  • Carbon Sequestration
  • Reduction of Contaminants in Soil
  • Bio-oil and syngas production

 

Carbon sequestration

 

Biochar can sequester carbon in the soil for hundreds to thousands of years, like coal as a result soils will potentially gain carbon credits.

 

Biochar, like plants, captures carbon dioxide and has the ability to store the greenhouse gas in a sink. A carbon sink is an artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon dioxide for a biomass dependant time period through sequestration.

 

Researchers have estimated that sustainable use of biocharring could reduce the global net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide and CO2-C equivalents per year.

 

Reduction of Contaminants in Soil

 

Biochar is being applied to soils for the conditioning and fertilization purpose as consequence the following benefits will acquire to soils

 

Improvement in water quality

 

Reduced nutrient leaching

 

Reduces soil acidity

 

Reduces irrigation and

 

Reduces fertilizer requirements

 

Reference


[1] © From http://co2now.org/

[2] © From http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/CO2REPORT2012.pdf

[3] © From http://www.biochar-international.org/sites/default/files/biochar_in_soils.pdf

[4] © From http://cif-ifc.org/uploads/Website_Assets/5_Anyia.pdf

[5] © From http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esdb_archive/eusoils_docs/other/eur24099.pdf

[6] © From http://www.csiro.au/files/files/pnzp.pdf

[7] © From http://www.misereor.org/fileadmin/redaktion/Report1_Biochar_111122_01.pdf

[8] © From http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-031111-153641/unrestricted/BIOCHAR_CO2SEQ.pdf

 

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