Julius Axelrod nobel laureate co-discoverer of acetanilide

Julius Axelrod – co-discoverer of acetanilide

Julius Axelrod – co-discoverer of acetanilide

Biography & contributions

Julius Axelrod was an American biochemist and Nobel laureate born on May 30, 1912 – died on December 29, 2004. Axelrod researched neurotransmitters in the nervous system and also discovered that psychoactive drugs affect the brain by altering the amount of neurotransmitters in cells.

Axelrod received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in the year of 1970 for his work on neurotransmitters.

He also conducted important research into the physiological actions of caffeine, and made major contributions to the scientific understanding of analgesics. In 1948, working with biologist Bernard Brodie,he established that acetaminophen lacks the toxic effects of other painkillers widely used at the time, leading Johnson & Johnson to develop the drug for home use as Tylenol. He also studied sympathomimetic amines and their metabolism, and the role of microsomal enzymes in drug metabolism.

Axelrod also made major contributions to the understanding of the pineal gland. Axelrod and Bernard Brodie discovered that acetanilide. In the year 1958 Axelrod discovered and characterized the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase.

He also studied sympathomimetic amines and their metabolism, and the role of microsomal enzymes in drug metabolism. Axelrod made major working mechanism of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

Facts about acetanilide

Acetanilide is an odorless solid chemical of leaf or flake-like appearance. Acetanilide can be produced by reacting acetic anhydride with aniline. Acetanilide is used as an inhibitor of hydrogen peroxide decomposition and is used to stabilize cellulose ester varnishes.

Acetanilide is produced and found uses as intermediate in the rubber accelerator synthesis, dyes, dye intermediate synthesis, and camphor synthesis. Acetanilide is used for the production of 4-acetamidobenzenesulfonyl chloride [key intermediate for the manufacture of the sulfa drugs]. It is also a precursor in the synthesis of penicillin and other pharmaceuticals.

Facts about acetaminophen

Acetaminophen also called paracetamol. Acetaminophen is generally used as a pain reliever and a fever reducer. Acetaminophen is used to treat many conditions such as headache, muscle aches, arthritis, backache, toothaches, colds, and fevers. Acetaminophen may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

It has a relatively little anti-inflammatory activity, unlike other common analgesics such as the NSAIDs aspirin and ibuprofen, but ibuprofen and paracetamol have similar effects in the treatment of headache. Acetaminophen can relieve pain in mild arthritis, but has no effect on the underlying inflammation, redness, and swelling of the joint.

In combination with opioid analgesics, acetaminophen can also be used in the management of more severe pain such as post-surgical pain and providing palliative care in advanced cancer patients.

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