Otto Loewi – discoverer of chemical transmission of nerve impulses

Otto Loewi – discoverer of chemical transmission of nerve impulses

Otto Loewi – discoverer of chemical transmission of nerve impulses

Biography & contributions

Otto Loewi was a German pharmacologist and Nobel laureate born on June 03, 1873 – died on December 25, 1961. Otto is the Father of Neuroscience. He was the receiver of many awards and medals like Nobel Prize for Medicine in the year of 1936, Cameron prize from University of Edinburgh in the year of 1944, Austrian Medal for Science and Art in the year of 1959. Otto identified adrenaline as a nervous system transmitters, and noradrenaline as the most important neurotransmitter.

His neurological researches provided the first proof that chemicals were involved in the transmission of impulses from one nerve cell to another and from neuron to the responsive organ.


Acetylcholine is polyatomic cation, an ester of choline and acetic acid and neurotransmitter nature at neuromuscular junctions, at synapses in the ganglia of the visceral motor system, and at a variety of sites within the central nervous system. Acetylcholine is a choline molecule that has been acetylated at the oxygen atom.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A through the action of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and becomes packaged into membrane-bound vesicles.

It acts on both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) and is the only neurotransmitter used in the motor division of the somatic nervous system. Acetylcholine is also the principal neurotransmitter in all autonomic ganglia.

Acetylcholine is also known to play an important role in memory and learning and is in abnormally short supply in the brains of those with Alzheimer’s disease.


Adrenaline also termed as Epinephrine. Adrenaline is used to treat a number of conditions including: cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis, and superficial bleeding. It has been used historically for bronchospasm and hypoglycemia, but newer treatments for these that are selective for beta2 adrenoceptors, such as salbutamol, a synthetic epinephrine derivative, are currently preferred.

Adrenaline is used as a drug to treat cardiac arrest and other cardiac dysrhythmias resulting in diminished or absent cardiac output. Adrenaline is also used as a bronchodilator for asthma if specific β2 agonists are unavailable or ineffective.

Adrenaline is added to injectable forms of a number of local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine and lidocaine, as a vasoconstrictor to slow the absorption and, therefore, prolong the action of the anesthetic agent.

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