Albert Ghiorso – co-discoverer 12 periodic elements

Albert Ghiorso – co-discoverer of 12 periodic elements

Category : Personalities
Published by : Data Research Analyst, Worldofchemicals.com

Biography & contributions

Albert Ghiorso, an American nuclear scientist born on July 15, 1915 – died on December 26, 2010. He was also the inventor of a number of techniques and machines for isolating and identifying heavy elements atom-by-atom.

Albert Ghiorso was the receiver of various awards and medals like Lifetime Achievement Award from Radiochemistry Society, The Potts Medal from Franklin Institute, G. D. Searle and Co. Award from American Chemical Society, Honorary Doctorate from Gustavus Adolphus College, and holds Guinness Book of World Records for most Elements Discovered.

Ghiorso was the co-discoverer of 12 periodic table elements.

  1. Americium
  2. Curium
  3. Berkelium
  4. Californium
  5. Einsteinium
  6. Fermium
  7. Mendelevium
  8. Nobelium
  9. Lawrencium
  10. Rutherfordium
  11. Dubnium
  12. Seaborgium

Ghiorso invented abundant techniques and machines for isolating and identifying heavy elements atom-by-atom.

Facts about Americium

Americium periodic table element was named after the continent of North America. It was made by Glenn Seaborg, Ralph James, Leon Morgan, and Albert Ghiorso late in 1944 at the wartime metallurgical laboratory at the University of Chicago. It was made as the result of successive neutron capture reactions by plutonium isotopes in a nuclear reactor. Americium was considered as the fourth synthetic transuranic element to be discovered.

Americium is a highly radioactive element. Freshly prepared americium metal gives off a white, silvery luster. It tarnishes slowly in dry air at room temperature. Americium is more malleable than uranium or neptunium. Americium has numerous compounds. In solutions, americium has oxidation states III, IV, V, and VI. In carbonate solutions, americium can coexist in all four oxidation states simultaneously. Americium is only the second element, after plutonium, to do this.

Facts about Curium

Curium periodic table element is named after chemist and physicist Marie Curie. Curium was identified by Glenn Seaborg, Ralph James and Albert Ghiorso in 1944 at the wartime metallurgical laboratory at the University of Chicago. Its production was the result of the helium-ion bombardment of radioactive element Plutonium-239.

Curium is highly radioactive. As a metal, it is lustrous and silvery. It is malleable, chemically reactive and electropositive. Its surface rapidly oxidizes in air, gaining a thin film. In dilute solutions, it dissolves rapidly to form Cm (III) solutions. Curium metal exists in two crystal structures

  1. Double-hexagonal close-packed

  2. Face-centered cubic close-packed

 

Facts about Californium

Californium periodic table element is named for the state of California, as well as the University of California system. Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, Kenneth Street and Albert Ghiorso at the University of California, Berkeley, first produced californium in 1950. They bombarded atoms of 242Cm with helium ions using the 60-inch cyclotron, which yielded 244Cf.

Californium is in the second half of the actinide series. As a metal, californium is fairly reactive. When standing in air or moisture, small pieces or foils of the metal quickly oxidize, but not violently. In high temperatures, a face-centered cubic structure has also been observed. The metal is trivalent and has a room-temperature, double-hexagonal close-packed structure.

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