Nicolas Lemery deduced Acid-base bonding model - WorldOfChemicals

Nicolas Lemery – developed acid-base bonding model

article on Nicolas Lemery

Biography & contributions

Nicolas Lemery was a French chemist born on November 17, 1645 – died on June 19, 1715. Lemery was the discoverer of heat generation between iron filings and sulfur rubbing and also deduced Acid-base bonding model.

Acid-base bonding model

An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. Acid-base concepts were provided by Antoine Lavoisier

Acid-base theories

  • Arrhenius Theory
  • Bronsted-Lowry Theory
  • Lewis Theory of acids and bases

An acid-alkali reaction is just a special case of an acid-base reaction, where the base used is also an alkali. When an acid reacts with an alkali it forms a metal salt and water. Acid-alkali reactions may also be a type of neutralization reaction.

In general, acid-alkali reactions can be simplified to

OH-(aq) + H+(aq) → H2O

Arrhenius Theory

According to Arrhenius theory acid is the substance which produces hydrogen ions H (+) or hydronium ions (H3O+) in water. Similar way base is the substance which produces hydroxide ions OH (-). Further acids and bases may be classified as strong or weak acids and bases depending on the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration produced in solution.

Limitations of Arrhenius theory

1] An acid should show its acid properties in any solvent. But an exception is the HCL. When HCL get dissolved in water still it acts as a Arrhenius acid and when it get dissolved in benzene it is not get dissolved and did not acts as a Arrhenius acid.

This is one of the drawbacks of Arrhenius theory

2] No explanation for behavior of acids and bases in a non aqueous solution

3] According to this theory salts should not produce solutions that are acidic and basic in nature but it should be neutral.

Exception to this rule is

In the reaction between HCL and HNO3 the resulted solution is acidic in nature

In the reaction between NaOH and CH3COOH the resulted solution is basic in nature.

This is also one of the drawbacks of Arrhenius theory

Bronsted-Lowry Theory

According to Bronsted-Lowry theory an acid substance is the proton (H+) donor and base acts as proton (H+) acceptor.The ion or molecule which remained after donating proton is considered as conjugate base and similarly the molecule which is formed by accepting proton is termed as conjugate acid.

Lewis Theory of acids and bases

Lewis Theory of acids and bases states that electron pair acceptor is the acid and electron pair donor is considered as base.

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