Ernest Rutherford – devised Rutherford model

Ernest Rutherford – devised Rutherford model

Ernest Rutherford

Biography & Contributions

Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealand-born British physicist and Nobel laureate born on August 30, 1871 – died on October 19, 1937. Rutherford is regarded as father of nuclear physics.

Rutherford well known for discovering and developing Rutherford model, Rutherford scattering phenomenon, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy instrument, proton discovery, Rutherford unit and artificial disintegration process.

He was received many medal and prizes in his career like in the year of 1905 Rumford Medal, in the year of 1910 Bressa Prize from Turin Academy of Science, in the year of 1922 Copley Medal, in the year of 1928 the Albert Medal from Royal Society of Arts, in the year of 1930 the Faraday Medal.

Rutherford’s early work include discovering the concept of radioactive half-life, proved that radioactivity involved the transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation.

In 1903, Rutherford considered a type of radiation discovered an emission from radium, and realized that this observation must represent something different from his own alpha and beta rays, due to its very much greater penetrating power. Rutherford therefore coined this as radiation the name of gamma ray. In 1907 he and Thomas Royds proved that alpha radiation is helium nuclei. In the year of 1908 developed the Rutherford-Geiger detector. The periodic table element rutherfordium (104) was named after him.

In 1911 he described in detail the nuclear model of the atom. In 1913, working with Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley, he used cathode ray bombardment to show that the inner structures of atoms can be used to assign an atomic number to each element. He is widely credited with first "splitting the atom" in 1917. In 1934 Rutherford and his student Mark Oliphant discovered tritium.

He discovered that thorium gave off a gas which produced an emanation which was itself radioactive and would coat other substances. He found that a sample of this radioactive material of any size invariably took the same amount of time for half the sample to decay – its "half-life".

Rutherford Scattering

Rutherford scattering is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction. It is now exploited by the materials analytical technique Rutherford backscattering. Rutherford scattering was first referred to as Coulomb scattering because it relies only upon static electric (Coulomb) forces, and the minimal distance between particles is set only by this potential.

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