James Dewar – inventor Dewar flask

James Dewar – inventor of Dewar flask

Category : Personalities
Published by : Data Research Analyst, Worldofchemicals.com

Biography & Contributions

James Dewar was a Scottish chemist and physicist born on September 20, 1842 – died on March 27, 1923. Dewar was the inventor of Dewar flask.

Dewar had received many honors like Davy medal in the year of 1894, Lavoisier Medal and Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize in the year of 1904, Albert medal in the year of 1908 Copley medal in the year of 1916.

The instrument which he invented i.e. Dewar flask was used in conjunction with extensive research into the liquefaction of gases. He was also particularly interested in atomic and molecular spectroscopy. In 1867 Dewar described several chemical formulas for benzene and it was termed as dewar benzene.

In 1892 he conceived the idea of using vacuum-jacketed vessels for the storage of low-temperature liquid gases, and the vacuum flask was so efficient at keeping heat out that it was found possible to preserve the liquids for comparatively long periods, making examination of their optical properties possible.

Dewar was subsequently the first to liquefy hydrogen gas and to solidify it. His discovery that cooled charcoal can be used to help create high vacuums later proved useful in atomic physics. Along with other eminent chemist Sir Frederick Augustus Abel he developed cordite explosive.

He investigated the physiological action of light, and examined the changes which take place in the electrical condition of the retina under its influence. His name is most widely known in connection with his work on the liquefaction. He tried to liquefy the last remaining gas, helium, which condenses into a liquid at -268.9 °C. In 1891 he had designed and built, at the Royal Institution, machinery which yielded liquid oxygen in industrial quantities.

Dewar flask

Dewar flask is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings. Dewar flask was designed and invented by James Dewar. Dewar formed a brass chamber that he enclosed in another chamber to keep the palladium at its desired temperature. He evacuated the air between the two chambers creating a partial vacuum to keep the temperature of the contents stable. Dewar created the Dewar flask which became a significant tool for chemical experiments but also became a common household item.

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