Niels Bohr – developer of Bohr model

Niels Bohr – developer of Bohr model

Category : Personalities
Published by : Data Research Analyst, Worldofchemicals.com

Biography & Contributions

Niels Bohr [Niels Henrik David Bohr] was a Danish physicist and Nobel laureate born on October 07, 1885 – died on November 18, 1962. Bohr was the first to apply the quantum concept, which restricts the energy of a system to certain discrete values, to the problem of atomic and molecular structure.

He had received many awards and medals in his career like Hughes Medal in the year of 1921, Nobel Prize in Physics in the year of 1922, Matteucci Medal in the year of 1923, Franklin Medal in the year of 1926, Copley Medal in the year of 1938.

Bohr developed the Bohr model of the atom, in which he proposed that energy levels of electrons are discrete and that the electrons revolve in stable orbits around the atomic nucleus but can jump from one energy level (or orbit) to another. He also deduced the complementarity principle: There are interactions between objects and the instruments used to observe them.

He predicted the existence of a new zirconium-like element, which was named hafnium. The element bohrium was named after him. He also studied astronomy and mathematics under Professor Thorvald Thiele.

Bohr postulated that electrons travel in fixed orbits around the atom's nucleus, and further explained how electrons emit or absorb energy. He explained that atoms exist in "stationary" states, and that when an atom changes from one state to another, there has been an emission (or absorption) of electromagnetic radiation of frequency ν, determined by the energy difference between the two states.

Bohr Model

Bohr Model introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus-similar in structure to the solar system, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

The Bohr model is a relatively primitive model of the hydrogen atom, compared to the valence shell atom.

The Bohr model gives almost exact results only for a system where two charged points orbit each other at speeds much less than that of light. This not only includes one-electron systems such as the hydrogen atom, singly ionized helium, doubly ionized lithium, but it includes positronium and Rydberg states of any atom where one electron is far away from everything else. It can be used for K-line X-ray transition calculations.

Bohr Radius

Bohr Radius is a physical constant, approximately equal to the most probable distance between the proton and electron in a hydrogen atom in its ground state. It is named after Niels Bohr, due to its role in the Bohr model of an atom.

Bohr radius value is 5.2917721092(17) ×10−11 m

The model says that the electrons orbit only at certain distances from the nucleus, depending on their energy. In the simplest atom, hydrogen, a single electron orbits the nucleus and its smallest possible orbit, with lowest energy, has an orbital radius almost equal to the Bohr radius.

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