Henry Moseley Discoverer of X-ray Frequency | Nuclear Model Of The Atom

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley – discoverer of X-ray frequency

Article on atomic models

Biography & contributions

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley was an English physicist born on November 23, 1887 - died on August 10, 1915. He concluded that properties of elements can be determined by its atomic number. Moseley predicted the existence of radioactive synthetic elements like Technetium,Promethium,Hafnium,Rhenium,Lanthanum,LutetiumHenry Gwyn Jeffreys was the first person discoverer of Moseley’s law.

Moseley's Law

Moseley’s law explains about systematic mathematical relationship between the wavelengths of the X-rays produced and the atomic numbers of the metals. It is historically important in quantitatively justifying the conception of the nuclear model of the atom, with all, or nearly all, positive charges of the atom located in the nucleus, and associated on an integer basis with atomic number.

Moseley was able to show that the frequencies of certain characteristic X-rays emitted from chemical elements are proportional to the square of a number which was close to the element's atomic number. Moseley had done experiments on the characteristic X-rays and this led to the development of the concept of atomic number.

Facts about Lanthanum 

Lanthanum is one of the rare earth elements used to make carbon arc lights which are used in the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projector lights. Lanthanum also makes up about 25% of Misch metal, a material that is used to make flints for lighters.

Lanthanum is used in large quantities in nickel metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries for hybrid automobiles, used as a petroleum cracking catalyst, catalyzing the splitting of long chain hydrocarbons into shorter chained species. Lanthanum is used as an additive to make nodular cast iron and as an additive in steel.

Lanthanum is used in hydrogen sponge alloys, which take up to 400 times their own volume of hydrogen gas. Lanthanum is also used to make night vision goggles (infrared-absorbing glass).

Facts about Hafnium 

Hafnium is used by the computer industry to create smaller and smaller microchips that operate more effectively whilst using less energy by regulating the flow of electricity through transistors. Hafnium is also useful to the nuclear power industry as a "neutron sponge" in reactor control rods.

It is used in high-temperature alloys and ceramics, since some of its compounds are very refractory. Hafnium is also used in photographic flash bulbs, light bulb filaments. Hafnium resists corrosion due to the formation of an oxide film on exposed surfaces.

Hafnium is used for nuclear reactor control rods because of its ability to absorb neutrons and its good mechanical and corrosion resistance qualities. Hafnium is also used in photographic flash bulbs, light bulb filaments, and in electronic equipment as cathodes and capacitors. Hafnium-based compounds are used in gate insulators in the 45 nm generation of integrated circuits for computers.

Facts about Lutetium

Lutetium was independently discovered by Carl Auer von Welsbach, Charles James, and Georges Urbain. French chemist Georges Urbain successfully separated lutetium from ytterbia in 1907 in Paris. He separated ytterbia into two constituents by a series of fractional crystallizations of ytterbium nitrate from nitric acid solution and obtained two rare earth oxides. One retained the name of ytterbium, the other he called lutecium which was later changed to lutetium.

Austrian scientist Carl Auer von Welsbach also isolated lutetium from ytterbia and he called the element cassipoium after the constellation Cassiopeia. Charles James also succeeded in isolating lutetium in 1906-7, in Durham, New Hampshire and he patented a bromate fractional crystallization process for isolating the rare earth metals.

Lutetium is very expensive to obtain on useful quantities and therefore it has very few commercial uses. It is the last of the lanthanide series of elements, and has been classified as a lanthanide despite being in the d-block, rather than the f-block as are all the other lanthanides. It is the densest and hardest of the lanthanides. Lutetium is also one of the least abundant lanthanides, however it is still more abundant on earth than silver or gold. Pure lutetium metal is produced by the reduction of the anhydrous fluoride with calcium metal.

Lutetium metal is available commercially so it is not normally necessary to make it in the laboratory, which is just as well as it is difficult to isolate as the pure metal.


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