Distinct features of chemical compound esters-WorldOfChemicals

Chemical compound Ester: Preparation, Properties, Structure and Occurrence


Esters are compounds that belong to the organic functional group which has and also forms sweet smelling compounds. The formula for ester is generally denoted by RCOOR’, where R and R’ are alkyl groups or an aryl groups that are produced by the reaction of an alcohol and an acid. When it is heated along wth a hydroxide some esters decay to generate soap and glycerin it is known as saponification. Certain fats and oils are mixtures of distinct esters, such as stearin, palmitin and linolein, produced from the alcohol,glycerol and fatty acids. Natural ester occurs in organic acids in fruits and flowers that give a distinguishing odor.

Preparation of esters

The common method of preparing esters is by Fischer Etherification. This process involves mixing a carboxylic acid and with alcohol in the occurrence of dehydrating agent.

The reaction is as follows:

RCO2H + R’OH = RCO2R’ + H2O

Properties of esters

1.Esters are polar in nature than ethers, but less polar than alcohols.
2.They play a vital part in hydrogen bonds like hydrogen bond acceptors; however are not hydrogen bond donors, distinct to the parent alcohols and carboxylic acids.
3.Esters are extremely volatile than carboxylic acids with alike molecular weight.
4.Esters have the capability to take part in the hydrogen bonding that allows some water solubility.
5.Esters with less molecular weight are generally utilized for fragrances and can be seen in essential oils and pheromones.

Structure and Bonding

Esters enclose a carbonyl center that has a 120 degree C-C-O and O-C-O bond angles because of the sp2 hybridization. Contrast to amides, the structure of esters is flexible functional groups due to the rotation about the C-O-C bonds that has a lower energy. The flexibility and low polarity influence ester’s physical properties based on the macroscopic scale. They are less likely to be rigid, being at a lower melting point, and more unstable or volatile. This leads to a lower boiling point, comparing to the corresponding amides. The pKa value of the alpha-hydrogens or the hydrogen close to the carbon adjacent to the carbonyl, on esters is approximately 25, being a effectively non-acidic excluding in the existence of highly strong bases.

Occurrence of esters

Esters are extensively found in nature and are commonly utilized in chemical industry. In environment, fats are in common triesters produced from glycerol and fatty acids. Esters are accountable for the aroma and fragrance of many fruits, comprising apples, durians, pears, bananas, pineapples and strawberries. Numerous kilograms of polyesters are manufactured industrially yearly, vital products are polyethylene terephthalate, acrylate esters and cellulose acetate.

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