Certain particulars of element terbium - WorldOfChemicals

The exceptional facts about Terbium

Category : General Chemicals
Published by : Data Research Analyst, Worldofchemicals.com

The chemical element terbium is categorised as a lanthanide which is also known for the rare earth metal. It was discovered by Carl Gustaf Mosander in 1843. Terbium is a silvery white metal which is malleable, ductile, and soft that can be cut with a knife. Being the 9th member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a quite electropositive metal which reacts with water, giving rise to hydrogen gas. Terbium is certainly not found in environment as a free element.

Chemical properties of Terbium

  • The general oxidation state of terbium is +3, which is Tb2O3.

  • The +4 state is known in TbO2 and TbF4.

  • Terbium burns quickly forming a mixed terbium (III,IV) oxides.

  • Terbium forms only trivalent ions in solutions.

  • Terbium is fairly electropositive and responds gradually with cold water and very rapidly with hot water to give rise to terbium hydroxide

  • Terbium metal responds with all halogens, giving rise to white trihalides.

  • Terbium melts down quickly in dilute sulfuric acid producing the solutions holding the pale pink terbium(III) ions, that exist as a [Tb(OH2)9]3+ compounds.

Applications of Terbium in industry

Terbium is atypical and expensive metal; therefore it hardly has any industrial uses. Common usage of terbium are in lasers, semiconductor appliances and phosphorous in colour television tubes. It is also made use in solid-state devices, as stabilizer for fuel cells that operates at lofty temperature.

Terbium in environment

The metal is moderately constant in air at a high temperature, since the formation of a rigid, dark oxide layer that can be signified as a mixed oxide composed of Terbium oxide and TbO2. Terbium quickly reacts with diluted acids, but Terbium is insoluble in hydrofluoric acid (HF) for the reason that the presence of the fluoride ion shields the metal from further reaction by forming a protective layer of TbF3. The metal is a very strong paramagnet above 230 K, it is antiferromagnetic between 220 K and 230 K, and it turns to ferromagnetic below 220 K.

Production of terbium

Terbium consisting minerals are produced with hot concentrated sulfuric acid for making the waters-soluble sulfates of rare earths. The acidic filtrates are partly neutralized with caustic soda to pH 3-4. Thorium is precipitated out of solution as hydroxide. The solution is mixed with ammonium oxalate to change rare earths into the insoluble oxalates. The oxalates are decayed to oxides by heating. The oxides are dissolved in nitric acid that leaves out one of the chief compounds, cerium, whose oxide is insoluble. Terbium is detached as distinct salts with ammonium nitrate by the process of crystallization.

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