Everything You Wanted to Know About Sugar - WorldOfChemicals

All You Need to Know About Sugar


All around the world people consume sugar. Now let us know what sugars are? Sugar, is the general name for soluble carbohydrates, which are sweet in taste and used in food. It is particularly a one source of food energy. The word sugar is originated from the Sanskrit word sarkara. Since ancient times, sugar is manufactured in Indian subcontinent.

Chemical formula of sugar:

The formula of sugar depends upon the type of sugar. Sucrose, also known as saccharose is the most common sugar with name table sugar, which is of type disaccharide, made up of monosaccharides, glucose and fructose combination. The chemical formula of sucrose is C12H22O11. This means each molecule of sugar consists of 12 carbon, 22 hydrogen and 11 oxygen atoms.

Other sugars molecular formulas:

Arabinose: C5H10O5

Fructose: C6H12O6

Galactose: C6H12O6

Glucose: C6H12O6

Inositol: C6H12O6

Mannose: C6H12O6

Lactose: C12H22O11

Xylose: C5H10O5

Types / Forms of sugar

All sugar is made up of sugar beet or sugarcane plants, and then various types can be made. Little adjustments in the processes of cleaning, crystallizing and by varying the level of molasses of sugar, varieties can be made.

Here is the list of few types of sugars:

White Sugar

  • Granulated Sugar:

In white sugar, all naturally present molasses are refined out. It is most commonly used in baking. It is perfect for measurement, sprinkling onto foods and drinks, as it don’t lump together.

  • Powdered Sugar:

It is known by different names such as icing sugar, powdered sugar, and confectioners. This is finely ground regular sugar, which is mixed with slight amount of cornstarch to prevent lumping/ caking.

  • Coarse / Decorating Sugar:

It has much larger crystals than regular white sugar. It is much stronger and resistant to heat because of the larger size. It is mainly used for decoration and for giving baked items and candies little texture. It comes in a rainbow of colors.

  • Sanding Sugar:

Sanding sugar can be of size large or fine crystals. This sugar reflects light and is used to give sparkling look. It is a kind of decorating sugar and comes in many different color.

  • Superfine / caster sugar:

Known by many names like caster, superfine or bar sugar, is a type of sugar with a small crystal size of white granulated sugar. It is often used in making delicate desserts like mousse or pudding. It has very fine crystals, which gets dissolved easily, even in cold drinks.

  • Fruit Sugar:

Also known as crystalline fructose, is comparatively finer than regular sugar. It is used in dry mixtures, like gelatin and pudding desserts and powdered drinks. It has a more uniform crystal size, preventing caking and settling of the crystals. As it is fully made up of fructose, it has harmful effects on health.

Brown Sugar

  • Light and Dark Brown Sugar:

Brown sugar are basically white sugar, which have composition of cane molasses. Light and brown sugar refers to the type of brown sugar depending upon the quantity of molasses added to it.

Light brown sugar is often used in baking, sauces and glazes. Dark brown sugar has a deeper color, and is used in richer foods such as gingerbread.

  • Turbinado Sugar:

It is a raw, partially processed sugar, whose only surface molasses are washed off. It has blond color appearance, mild flavor of brown sugar. It has slightly lower calories than white sugar.

  • Muscovado Sugar:

  • It is a British type of brown sugar, dark in color and have more molasses than dark or light brown sugar. It has slightly larger crystals than brown sugar. The texture of muscovado Sugar is sticky, giving a sandy texture to it.

  • Demerara Sugar:

It is a light color brown sugar, with bigger golden crystals and are slightly sticky. It is used often in tea, coffee or on hot cereals top. It is more popular in England.

Liquid Sugar:

It is a granulated sugar dissolved in water, which is often used in drinks. It has many forms like corn syrup, agave syrup which is high in fructose content, yacon syrup, rice syrup, maple syrup, honey etc.

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