Martin heinrich klaproth Pioneer In Analytical Chemistry and Minerology

Martin Heinrich Klaproth – pioneer of analytical chemistry

Martin heinrich klaproth

Biography & contributions

Martin Heinrich Klaproth was a German chemist born on December 01, 1743 – died on January 01, 1817. Klaproth has a crater on the moon named after him.

He was the leading chemist of his time in Germany and he was noted for discovery of uranium, zirconium, titanium and tellurium. Klaproth improved and systemized the processes of analytical chemistry and mineralogy.

He elucidated the composition of elements like

Martin rediscovered titanium in the year of 1795 about four years after its initial discovery and named it.

Uranium Facts

A yellow glass containing more than 1% uranium oxide dating back to 79 AD was found near Naples in Italy. Klaproth recognized an unknown element in pitchblende and attempted to isolate the metal in 1789. He named the element for the planet uranus which had just been discovered.

Uranium is a silvery white, weakly radioactive chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all its isotopes are unstable. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soils, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.

Uranium ore is mined in several ways: by open pit, underground, in-situ leaching, and borehole mining Uranium is used as a colorant in uranium glass producing orange-red to lemon yellow hues. Uranium in ores is extracted chemically and converted into uranium dioxide or other chemical forms usable in industry. Uranium was also used in photographic chemicals, in lamp filaments for stage lighting bulbs, to improve the appearance of dentures, and in the leather and wood industries for stains and dyes. Uranium salts are mordants of silk or wool.

Uranyl acetate and uranyl formate are used as electron-dense "stains" in transmission electron microscopy, to increase the contrast of biological specimens in ultrathin sections and in negative staining of viruses, isolated cell organelles and macromolecules.

Titanium Facts

Titanium was discovered by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1795. It was first prepared in an impure form in 1887 but it was not prepared as a pure metal until 1910 when Matthew A. Hunter heated titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with sodium in a steel bomb.

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine. Titanium is also present in plants and animals, natural waters and deep-sea dredgings, and meteorites and stars.

Titanium is important as an alloying agent with most metals and some nonmetals. Some of these alloys have much higher tensile strengths than does titanium itself. Titanium has excellent corrosion-resistance in many environments because of the formation of a passive oxide surface film.

Titanium resembles other transition metals such as iron and nickel in being hard and refractory. Its combination of high strength, low density, and excellent corrosion-resistance make it useful for many parts of aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and ships. It also is used in prosthetic devices, because it does not react with fleshy tissue and bone. Titanium has also been utilized as a deoxidizer in steel and as an alloying addition in many steels to reduce grain size, in stainless steel to reduce carbon content, in aluminum to refine grain size, and in copper to produce hardening.

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