Synthesis and applications of Isoquinoline - WorldOfChemicals

Isoquinoline - Synthesis, Applications and Scope


Isoquinoline is an aromatic organic chemical compound, which is a structural isomer of quinoline. It is also known as leucoline. The structure of isoquinoline consists of a pyridine ring fused to a benzene ring. It is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor. Isoquinoline is a weak base which protonates to form salts when treated with strong acids. It is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid in appearance.



Isoquinoline was first obtained from coal tar by Hoogewerf and Van Dorp in 1985. They were able to isolate isoquinoline through fractional crystallization of acid sulfate. In 1914, Weissgerber devised a better approach to selectively extract isoquinoline from coal tar.

There are numerous methods, through which isoquinoline derivatives can be synthesized. The Pomeranz-Fritsch reaction is an efficient method for the synthesis of isoquinoline chemical. Similarly, using glyoxal acetal and benzylamine along with Schlittler-Muller modification, the same results can be obtained.



Isoquinoline is widely used for the preparation of vanilla spice. This aromatic compound finds applications in the pharmaceutical industry such as the manufacture of drugs for the treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis and malaria. They are also used as solvents for the extraction of terpenes and resins.


The derivatives of isoquinoline are used as anesthetics, antihypertension agents, antifungal agents, rubber accelerators, color film sensitizing agents, topical antiseptics, drugs, gas chromatographic stationary liquids, analytical reagents, corrosion inhibitors, disinfectants and vasodilators. Isoquinolines are used in the production of paints, dyes, fungicides and insecticides.


Pyridine carboxylic acid and its derivatives are synthesized from isoquinoline through oxidation, which is used in the manufacture of dyes and color films. In the benzoylation reaction and olefin polymerization process, isoquinoline can act as a catalyst. This aromatic organic chemical compound is used in the qualitative determination of noble metals and the quantitative determination of cadmium and nickel. 



Isoquinoline is an important precursor for the discovery of chemicals and drugs. Numerous synthetic methodologies are constantly being developed with unspecialized chemicals. The diversity of isoquinoline motifs have greatly expanded with the recent efforts in the synthetic field. 


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