Solid State of Lithium Ion Battery - WorldOfChemicals

Solid State Battery Technology

Category : General Chemicals
Published by : Data Research Analyst, Worldofchemicals.com

History

The solid electrolytes were discovered by the English scientist Michael Faraday, who contributed in the areas of electrochemistry and electromagnetism. He laid the base for solid state electrolytes. Batteries are solid state electrolytic devices.

 

What is solid state battery?

Lithium ion batteries find applications in various devices, such as electronics, medical devices, watches, remote car locks and computer battery backup systems. These are made of solid lithium electrodes immersed in a liquid electrolyte. Whereas in a solid state battery, solid lithium electrodes are immersed in a solid electrolyte, which is a conductive material such as ceramic or polymer.

 

What are the benefits of going solid?

Solid state batteries are relatively smaller in size with a greater performance potential. Unlike liquid state batteries, they are not susceptible to catching fire under pressure. This feature enables automotive manufacturers to make room for larger batteries, rather than utilizing it for cooling systems. Solid state lithium ion batteries have longer charge cycle life.

 

Why the delay? 

Finding the right solid state material, which can conduct fair enough to do the work is difficult. There has been success with amide-borohydride and sulphide based materials. Research has also stated the possibility of using air as an electrolyte, instead of solids. Glass has been proven to be an effective electrolyte in lithium ion batteries.

 

Why not commercial yet?

Despite solid state battery technology rendering great results, they are limited to the labs and would not necessarily imply on the commercial products. Apart from performance efficiency, their mass production must be feasible.

 

Advantages 

The solid state technology has the potential for higher energy density, owing to its greater temperature tolerance. The solid state lithium ion batteries are safer than their liquid counterparts, which are flammable. These batteries also possess greater power and energy densities. This solid state technology facilitates faster recharge in electric cars. The possibility of longer cycle life and higher voltage can be achieved with solid state batteries.

 

Disadvantages

Solid state batteries are expensive to manufacture and not feasible for commercial production. Solid state batteries with ceramic electrolytes maintain contact with electrodes under high pressure. Batteries with ceramic separators can break due to mechanical stress, owing to their rigid nature. The use of solid lithium metal can lead to the formation of dendrites, which are due to the reactivity and repeated charge and discharge cycles.


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