Vladimir Markovnikov Discovered Markovnikovs rule

Vladimir Markovnikov – discoverer of Markovnikov's rule

Article On Vladimir Markovnikov

Biography & contributions

Vladimir Markovnikov (Vladimir Vasilyevich Markovnikov) was a Russian organic chemist born on December 22, 1838 – died on February 11, 1904. Markovnikov is best known for Markovnikov's rule.

Markovnikov’ research works include found carbon rings with more than six carbon atoms. In 1879 he found carbon ring with four carbon atoms. In 1889 Markovnikov found carbon ring with seven carbon atoms. He discovered that butyric acid and isobutyric acid are isomers.

Markovnikov's rule

Markovnikov’s rule explains about the addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents. The chemical basis for Markovnikov's Rule is the formation of the most stable carbocation during the addition process.

Butyric Acid

Butyric Acid is an important member of the fatty acid subgroup called short-chain fatty acids. Butyric acid is a medium-strong acid that reacts with bases and strong oxidants, and attacks many metals. Butyric acid is found in milk, especially goat, sheep and buffalo milk, butter, Parmesan cheese, and as a product of anaerobic fermentation. It is industrially prepared by the fermentation of sugar or starch, brought about by the addition of putrefying cheese, with calcium carbonate added to neutralize the acids formed in the process.

Butyric Acid is oxidized to carbon dioxide and acetic acid using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid, while alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide. Butyric acid is used in the preparation of various butyrate esters. Low-molecular-weight esters of butyric acid, such as methyl butyrate, have mostly pleasant aromas or tastes.

Isobutyric Acid

Isobutyric acid is a carboxylic acid and an isomer of n-butyric acid. Isobutyric acid may be artificially prepared by the hydrolysis of isobutyronitrile with alkalis, by the oxidation of isobutanol with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid, or by the action of sodium amalgam on methacrylic acid. Isobutyric acid is a liquid under common conditions with a somewhat unpleasant smell. Isobutyric acid can also be manufactured commercially using engineered bacteria using a sugar feedstock.

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