Anticancer drugs used in treating malignancies cells in human body

Antineoplastics-agents

Amsacrine

Amsacrine derivative that is a potent intercalating antineoplastic agent. It is effective in the treatment of acute leukemias and malignant lymphomas, but has poor activity in the treatment of solid tumors. It is frequently used in combination with other antineoplastic agents in chemotherapy protocols. It produces consistent but acceptable myelosuppression and cardiotoxic effects.

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Docetaxel

Docetaxel is a clinically well-established anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication. It is a semi-synthetic, second-generation taxane, with anti-neoplastic application for the treatment of breast, ovarian, and non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel is a taxoid antineoplastic agent. It promotes the assembly of microtubules from tubulin dimers and stabilizes microtubules by preventing depolymerization. Docetaxel interferes with the normal function of microtubule growth, which results in cell- cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. Docetaxel does not block disassembly of interphase microtubules and so does not prevent entry into the mitotic cycle, but does block mitosis by inhibiting mitotic spindle assembly. Docetaxel is mainly metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 subfamilies of isoenzymes.

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Etoposide

Etoposide is an anti-cancer agent. It inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase II, which unwinds DNA, and by doing so causes DNA strands to break. Cancer cells are less able to repair this damage than healthy cells. It is used as a form of chemotherapy for cancers such as Ewing's sarcoma, lung cancer, testicular cancer, lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme. It is often given in combination with other drugs. It is also sometimes used in a conditioning regimen prior to a bone marrow or blood stem cell transplant.

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Nimustine

Nimustine is a nitrosourea alkylating agent. It is used as antineoplastic agents. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.

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Sorafenib

Sorafenib is a drug approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer and advanced primary liver cancer.

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Tesetaxel

Tesetaxel is a drug used in chemotherapy.

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Arctigenin

Arctigenin is a lignan found in certain plants of the Asteraceae , including the Greater burdock. It has shown antiviral and anticancer effects. It is the aglycone of arctiin.

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Picoplatin

Picoplatin is a cytotoxic platinum compound in clinical development by Poniard Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. In Phase I and Phase II clinical trials, picoplatin demonstrated activity in a variety of solid tumors, including lung, ovarian, colorectal and hormone-refractory prostate cancer. However, in Phase III trials, picoplatin failed to hit its primary endpoint for advanced small cell lung cancer. Hopes are now pinned on its use for metastatic colorectal cancer.

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Altretamine

Altretamine is an anti-neoplastic agent.It also acts as a chemosterilant for male houseflies and other insects.It is used to treat refractory ovarian cancer.It can be useful as salvage therapy.

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Clofarabine

Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite.It is FDA-approved for treating a type of leukaemia called relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children.Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite that differs from other puring nucleoside analogs by the presence of a chlorine in the purine ring and a flourine in the ribose moiety. Clofarabine seems to interfere with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed.Clofarabine is metabolized intracellularly to the active 5'-monophosphate metabolite by deoxycytidine kinase and 5'-triphosphate metabolite by mono- and di-phospho-kinases.

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