Antiparasitic drugs highly effective, safe, cost effective drugs used in parasitic diseases treatment

Antiparasitics-and-antispirochete-agents

Quinine

Quinine is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic,antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which, unlike quinine, is an anti-arrhythmic. Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: the aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine.Quinine is used parenterally to treat life-threatening infections caused by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Quinine acts as a blood schizonticide although it also has gametocytocidal activity against P. vivax and P. malariae.

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Nonactin

Nonactin is a member of a family of naturally occurring cyclic ionophores known as the macrotetrolide antibiotics. Nonactin is known for its ability to form complexes with alkali cations, most notably potassium and sodium.Nonactin has been reported to specifically inhibit the processing of cytoplasmic precursor proteins destined for the mitochondria. It is able to uncouple the oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria of rat liver in a low concentration, and can also carry cations across biological and artificial membranes.

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Diloxanide

Diloxanide furoate is an anti-protozoal drug.It is used in the treatment of Entamoeba histolytica and some other protozoal infections,in the treatment of asymptomatic (cyst passers) intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Diloxanide may also be used concurrently, or sequentially, with other agents such as the nitroimidazoles (eg. metronidazole) in the treatment of invasive or extraintestinal forms of amebiasis.

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Ethopabate

Ethopabate is a coccidiostat used in poultry.

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Iodoquinol

Iodoquinol is a quinoline derivative which can be used in the treatment of amoebiasis.It can be given to treat diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica or Giardia lamblia. It is also used topically in other infections and may cause CNS and eye damage.It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is amebicidal at the site of infection.It acts by chelating ferrous ions essential for metabolism.

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Mefloquine

Mefloquine belongs to the class of medications called antimalarials. It is used to treat and prevent malaria infections caused by certain types of parasites.Mefloquine is a 4-methanolquinine antimalarial which acts as a blood schizontocide. It is active against most Plasmodium species and is used both as prophylaxis and treatment against malaria.It is used for the treatment of mild to moderate acute malaria caused by Mefloquineuine-susceptible strains of Plasmodium falciparum (both chloroquine-susceptible and resistant strains) or by Plasmodium vivax,and also for the prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria infections, including prophylaxis of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum.

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Primaquine

Primaquine is a medication used in the treatment of malaria and Pneumocystis pneumonia. It is a member of the 8-aminoquinoline group of drugs that includes tafenoquine and pamaquine.It is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria.It may be acting by generating reactive oxygen species or by interfering with the electron transport in the parasite.

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Rafoxanide

Rafoxanide is a salicylanilide used as an antiparasitic agent.

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Amodiaquine

Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine, used as an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent. It is a histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor. It has been shown to be more effective than chloroquine in treating CRPF malaria infections and may afford more protection than chloroquine when used as weekly prophylaxis.

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Chloroquine

Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline drug used in the treatment or prevention of malaria.It is the prototype anti malarial drug, most widely used to treat all types of malaria except for disease caused by chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum. It is highly effective against erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae, sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum and gametocytes of Plasmodium vivax.Chloroquine inhibits the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. It may also interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids.

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