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Crocin is a natural carotenoid chemical compound that is found in the flowers crocus and gardenia. It is the diester formed from the disaccharide gentiobiose and the dicarboxylic acid crocetin. It is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has also been shown to be a potent antioxidant. It has also been shown to have an anticarcinogenic action. It has been shown to have antidepressant properties. As per a new study, crocin has reported aphrodisiac properties.

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Lutein is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally-occurring carotenoids. Found in green leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale, lutein is employed by organisms as an antioxidant and for blue light absorption. Lutein is also found in egg yolks, animal fats, and the retina. It is a lipophilic molecule and is generally insoluble in water. The presence of the long chromophore of conjugated double bonds provides the distinctive light-absorbing properties. The polyene chain is susceptible to oxidative degradation by light or heat and is chemically unstable in acids. This xanthophyll, like its sister compound zeaxanthin, has primarily been used as a natural colorant due to its orange-red color. Lutein absorbs blue light and therefore appears yellow at low concentrations and orange-red at high concentrations. It was traditionally used in chicken feed to provide the yellow color of broiler chicken skin. Lutein is not used as a colorant in other foods due to its limited stability, especially in the presence of other dyes.

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Betanin is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets. It degrades when subjected to light, heat, and oxygen; therefore, it is used in frozen products, products with short shelf life, or products sold in dry state.It can survive pasteurization when in products with high sugar content. Its sensitivity to oxygen is highest in products with high content of water and containing metal cations. Antioxidants like ascorbic acid and sequestrants can slow this process down, together with suitable packaging. In dry form betanin is stable in presence of oxygen.

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Juglone is an organic compound. It occurs naturally in the leaves, roots, husks, and bark of plants in the Juglandaceae family, particularly the black walnut, and is toxic or growth-stunting to many types of plants. It is sometimes used as a herbicide, as a dye for cloth and inks, and as a coloring agent for foods and cosmetics.

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Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family. The curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. It can be used for boron quantification in the curcumin method. It reacts with boric acid forming a red colored compound, known as rosocyanine. It may be used as a food coloring.

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Lycopene is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons and papayas. Although lycopene is chemically a carotene, it has no vitamin A activity. In plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms, lycopene is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of many carotenoids, including beta carotene, responsible for yellow, orange or red pigmentation, photosynthesis, and photo-protection. Like all carotenoids, lycopene is a polyunsaturated hydrocarbon. Structurally, it is a tetraterpene assembled from eight isoprene units, composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen, and is insoluble in water. Lycopene's eleven conjugated double bonds give it its deep red color and are responsible for its antioxidant activity. Due to its strong color and non-toxicity, lycopene is a useful food coloring.

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Orange B

Orange B is a food dye from the azo dye group. It usually comes as disodium salt.


Carthamin is a natural red pigment derived from safflower. It is used as a dye and a food coloring. It is composed of two chalcones; the conjugated bonds being the cause of the red color. It is derived from precarthamin by a decarboxylase.

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Yellow 2G

Yellow 2G is a synthetic yellow azo dye. It is used for food coloring . It appears to cause allergic or intolerant reactions, particularly amongst those with an aspirin intolerance and asthma sufferers. It is one of the colors that the Hyperactive Children's Support Group recommends be eliminated from the diet of children. It is not listed by the UK's Food Standards Agency among EU approved food additives. Its use is banned in Austria, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States.

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Capsanthin is a major colouring compound among variety of coloured compounds present in Paprika Oleoresin.

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