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ATPase

ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion. This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy, which the enzyme harnesses to drive other chemical reactions that would not otherwise occur. This process is widely used in all known forms of life.

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AVIZYME-D

AVIZYME-D is a robust dextranase that will break down dextran into sucrose and hamper the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. By doing so it increases the sugar yield per ton of molasses, improves shelf life of sugar and also results in producing sugar with higher ICUMSA values. Avizyme-D can be dosed at various points in the process with no additional equipment modification.

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AVIZYME-S

AVIZYME-S is a bacterial alpha amylase with a broad application temperature. It helps in breaking down starch into simple sugars thus increasing the eventual yield. It can be dosed at various points in the process at various temperatures making it the most effective and versatile amylase.

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Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

Acetaldehyde dehydrogenases (EC 1.2.1.10) are dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyze the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetic acid.

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Acetoacetate decarboxylase

Acetoacetate decarboxylase (ADC) is an enzyme involved in both the ketone body production pathway in humans and other mammals, and solventogenesis in certain bacteria. Its reaction involves a decarboxylation of acetoacetate, forming acetone and carbon dioxide. The enzyme works in the cytosol of cells and demonstrates a maximum activity at pH 5.95. In humans and other mammals, this reaction can take place spontaneously, or through the catalytic actions of acetoacetate decarboxylase.

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Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase

Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.36) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA:NADP+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in butanoate metabolism.

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Acetolactate Decarboxylase

Acetolactate Decarboxylase is belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate carboxy-lyase [(R)-2-acetoin-forming].This enzyme participates in butanoate metabolism and c5-branched dibasic acid metabolism. Acetolactate Decarboxylase is an enzyme that is a processing aid when low-enzyme malt is used. It lowers the cost because less malt is required and provides for faster fermentation. It is used in beer.

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Acetone carboxylase

Acetone carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.6) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetone:carbon-dioxide ligase (AMP-forming).

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Acetyl Coenzyme A

Acetyl Coenzyme A is an activated two carbon compound found in many central metabolic pathways, including the citric acid cycle, the glyoxylate cycle, fatty acid synthesis, fatty acid oxidation, isoprene metabolism, amino sugar metabolism, ketone body metabolism, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Its main function is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production. It is produced during the second step of aerobic cellular respiration, pyruvate decarboxylation, which occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. It is also an important component in the biogenic synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is a major fuel for the oxidation process in the body. Acetyl CoA is the beginning for synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrates. Acetyl-CoA is also an allosteric regulator of the enzymes pyruvate kinase, pyruvate carboxylase.

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Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA through its two catalytic activities, biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT). The most important function of ACC is to provide the malonyl-CoA substrate for the biosynthesis of fatty acids.

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