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Coumaric Acid

Coumaric acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound that is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid. It is biosynthesized from cinnamic acid by the action of the P450-dependent enzyme 4-cinnamic acid hydroxylase. It has antioxidant properties and is believed to reduce the risk of stomach cancer by reducing the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines.

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Coumestan is an organic compound that is a derivative of coumarin. It forms the central core of a variety of natural compounds known collectively as coumestans.

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Coumestrol is a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as coumestans. It has garnered research interest because of its estrogenic activity and its prevalence in some foods, such as soybeans and herbs such as Pueraria mirifica. It was first identified by E. M. Bickoff in alfalfa in 1957. It is a phytoestrogen, mimicking the biological activity of estrogens. The chemical shape of coumestrol orients its two hydroxy groups in the same position as the two hydroxy groups in estradiol, allowing it to inhibit the activity of aromatase and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. These enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, and inhibition of these enzymes results in the modulation of hormone production.

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