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Ephedrine hydrochloride

Ephedrine hydrochloride is a phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.

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Epibatidine is an alkaloid found on the skin of the endangered Ecuadorian frog, Epipedobates tricolor. These frogs, like other poison dart frogs, are best known for their ability to sequester poisons from their prey and secrete these poisons onto their backs. The one toxin that distinguishes the Epipedobates tricolor from other frogs in his family is epibatidine. The frog uses the compound to protect itself from predators. Animals many times larger would die from the small amounts of epibatidine that the frog secretes. Epibatidine, which was being researched in 1974, turned out to be a very powerful analgesic. This had proven a powerful argument for further research, which has shown that epibatidine has gastrointestinal side effects. This gives the compound a very small therapeutic index and it is very unlikely to ever appear on the medicinal market.

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Epiberberine is a natural bioactive protoberberine alkaloid from Coptidis Rhizoma. Coptidis Rhizoma and its isolated alkaloids are found to possess a variety of activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities.

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Epicatechin Gallate

Epicatechin gallate is a flavan-3-ol, a type of flavonoid, present in green tea. It is also reported in buckwheat.

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Epinephrine is a hormone and neurotransmitter.It increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system.It is indicated for intravenous injection in treatment of acute hypersensitivity, treatment of acute asthmatic attacks to relieve bronchospasm, and treatment and prophylaxis of cardiac arrest and attacks of transitory atrioventricular heart block with syncopal seizures (Stokes-Adams Syndrome).It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels.

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