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Hafnium Carbide

Hafnium Carbide is a chemical compound of hafnium and carbon. With a melting point of about 3900 °C it is one of the most refractory binary compounds known.Hafnium Carbide is usually carbon deficient and therefore its composition is often expressed as HfCx (x=0.5 to 1.0). It has a cubic (rock-salt) crystal structure at any value of x.Hafnium Carbide powder is obtained by the reduction of hafnium(IV) oxide with carbon at 1800 to 2000 °C. A long processing time is required to remove all oxygen. Alternatively, high-purity HfC coatings can be obtained by chemical vapour deposition from a gas mixture of methane, hydrogen, and vaporised hafnium(IV) chloride. Because of the technical complexity and high cost of the synthesis, HfC has a very limited use, despite its favourable properties such as high hardness (>9 Mohs) and melting point.

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The haloalkanes are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens. They are a subset of the general class of halocarbons, although the distinction is not often made. Haloalkanes are widely used commercially and, consequently, are known under many chemical and commercial names. They are used as flame retardants, fire extinguishants, refrigerants, propellants, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. Subsequent to the widespread use in commerce, many halocarbons have also been shown to be serious pollutants and toxins.

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