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Lactaldehyde is an intermediate in the methylglyoxal metabolic pathway. Methylglyoxal is converted to D-lactaldehyde by glycerol dehydrogenase. Lactaldehyde is then oxidized to lactic acid by aldehyde dehydrogenase.

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Lactate is a product of fermentation and is produced during cellular respiration as glucose is broken down. It is a salt or an ester of lactic acid.

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Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy.It is used by mouth for constipation and either by mouth or in the rectum for hepatic encephalopathy.It generally begins working after eight to twelve hours but may take up to two days to improve constipation.It is classified as an osmotic laxative.It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.Lactulose is made from the milk sugar lactose, which is composed of two simple sugars, galactose and glucose.Lactulose is used in the treatment of chronic constipation in patients of all ages as a long-term treatment.Lactulose is used for chronic idiopathic constipation, i.e. chronic constipation occurring without any identifiable cause.Lactulose may be used to counter the constipating effects of opioids, and in the symptomatic treatment of hemorrhoids as a stool softener.Lactulose is useful in treating hyperammonemia (high blood ammonia), which can lead to hepatic encephalopathy.Lactulose helps trap the ammonia (NH3) in the colon and bind to it.[15] It does this by using gut flora to acidify the colon, transforming the freely diffusible ammonia into ammonium (NH+4) which can no longer diffuse back into the blood.It is a disaccharide (double-sugar) formed from one molecule each of the simple sugars (monosaccharides) fructose and galactose.Lactulose is not normally present in raw milk but is a product of heat-processes.

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