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Glass-Ceramics

Fluorine

Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. Natural fluorine is monoisotopic, consisting of fluorine-19. It has found uses in studies of protein structures and conformational changes. Elemental fluorine is occasionally used as a fluorinating agent in industrial processes. The largest use for elemental fluorine is preparing uranium hexafluoride, used in the production of nuclear fuels. Other than those, elemental fluorine is used for the production of tetrafluoromethane, plasma etching in semiconductor manufacturing, flat panel display production, and microelectromechanical systems fabrication. Inorganic fluorides and organofluorine compounds, a fraction of which are prepared from elemental fluorine, find use in a variety of materials and chemicals, including important pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, lubricants, and textiles. Hydrofluoric acid and certain fluoride-containing salts are useful etchants for glass. In the electrolysis of the metal and its purification, it acts to lower the melting point of aluminium oxide and acts like a powerful flux for glass. Perfluorooctanoic acid and tetrafluoroethylene are directly used in water resistant coatings and in the production of low friction plastics such as Teflon, or PTFE. Other fluorine-based compounds are used in the production of haloalkanes such as chlorofluorocarbons, which are used extensively in air conditioning and in refrigeration. They have been banned for these applications because they contribute to ozone destruction.

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Gadolinium Fluoride Industrial Grade 99.9%

Gadolinium fluoride is white solide, which is rare earth metal fluoride. It is insoluble in cold water and faintly soluble in hot hydrofluoric acid. It is stable at room temperature and pressure. Gadolinium sulfate solution is the raw material.

Gadolinium Fluoride

Purity: Gd/RE 99.9% 3N

CAS No.:13765-26-9 EINECS No.:237-369-4 Molecular Formula:GdF3 Molecular Weight:214.25
Melting Point:1231℃ Boiling Point:2277℃ UN 3288 6.1/PG 3  

Applications

Gadolinium trifluoride uses as raw material for arc carbon rod, which is also raw material for additive of special metals. It uses in ferroalloy and in producing electron components. Gadolinium compound applies to make kinescope of colour TV and phosphor of computer display.

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Gadolinium Metal Purified 99.9%

Gadolinium metal is rare earth, which is available in powder, ingot, granule, wire, sheet, foil, sputtering target and so on. It is silvery white metal and own ductility, which also own ferromagnetism and extraordinary superconductivity. Gd powder is soluble in dilute acid. It tends to oxidize in moisture air and turns dark. Gd ingot turns to white oxide after firing in air. It is relatively stable in dry air. There are two production methods, distillation method and reduction method. The distilled gadolinium piece is dendritic with higher purity than reduced one.

Gadolinium Metal

Purity: Gd/REM 99.9% 3N

Particle size: -100mesh, -200mesh

CAS No.:7440-54-2 EINECS No.:231-162-2 Molecular Formula:Gd Molecular Weight:157.25
Density:7.9004 Melting Point:1313 Boiling Point:3266 UN 3208 4.3/PG 3

Applications

Gadolinium metal foil mainly applies to prepare magneto-optic material and magnetic refrigerant material. It also acts as neutron absorber material in atomic reactor. Gadolinium metal powder is catalyst in chemical reaction. It is raw material for fluorescent powder of microwave technology and colored TV.

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Gadolinium Nitride Industrial Grade 99.9%

Gadolinium nitride is black powder, which is a rare earth metal nitride powder of cubic crystal system. It own semiconductor property and  can process into thin film that deposit on MgO(100) or Si(100) using a plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) based process.

Gadolinium Nitride

Purity:Gd/RE 99.9% 3N

Particle size: -100mesh, -200mesh

CAS No.:25764-15-2 EINECS No.:247-250-9 Molecular Formula:GdN Molecular Weight:171.257

 

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Gold

Gold is the most malleable and ductile metal known. It has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions, gold has many practical uses in dentistry, electronics, and other fields. Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions. However, only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, as elemental gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body. In modern times, injectable gold has been proven to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. Its high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity lead to many uses of gold, including electric wiring, colored glass production and even gold leaf eating. Gold leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient.

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Holmium

Holmium is a rare earth element. Its oxide was first isolated from rare earth ores in 1878 and the element was named after the city of Stockholm. It is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite, and is usually commercially extracted from monazite using ion exchange techniques. It has the highest magnetic strength of any element and therefore is used for the polepieces of the strongest static magnets. Because holmium strongly absorbs nuclear fission-bred neutrons, it is used in nuclear control rods. It is also used in yttrium-iron-garnet and yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride solid-state lasers found in microwave equipment. Holmium lasers emit at 2.08 micrometres, and therefore are safe to eyes. They are used in medical, dental, and fiber-optical applications. Holmium is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

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Holmium Metal Purified 99.9%

Holmium powder is dark gray fine particles, which has  unusual magnetic property. It is stable at room temperature and in dry air, however in dry air and high temperature, it is easy to oxidize. It is soluble in inorganic acid. Holmium metal can compound with various nonmetal elements nearly. It exists in gadolinite, monazite and other rare earth ores. Holmium chloride is the raw material. Ho can process into foil, sheet, rod, powder, wire and sputtering target. The ingot is of REM 99.99% by distillation method. Ho powder is of REM 99.9% and particle size -100mesh and -200mesh. There are two production method of holmium ingots, distillation method and reduction method. The distilled holmium piece is dendritic with higher purity than reduced one.

Holmium Powder

Purity: Ho/REM 99.9% 3N

CAS No.:7440-60-0 EINECS No.:231-169-0 Molecular Formula:Ho Molecular Weight:164.930
Melting Point:1474℃ Boiling Point:2695℃ Density:8.79  

Applications

Holmium metal powder can apply in material of highfield. It is raw material for producing magnetic alloys material.

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Holmium Oxide Purified 99.9%

Holmium oxide is faint yellow or yellow powder, which is isometric system scandium oxide type structure. It is rare earth oxide, which is insoluble in water, but not soluble in acid. Ho2O3 is insoluble in water, but soluble in acid, which is stable at room temperature and pressure.

Holmium Oxide

CAS No.:12055-62-8 EINECS No.:235-015-3 Molecular Formula:Ho2O3 Molecular Weight:377.86
Density:8.16 Melting Point:2415℃ Boiling Point:3900℃  

Applications

Holmium(III) oxide mainly applies to make new light source Dysprosium Holmium lamp. It is also additive for yttrium iron or yttrium aluminum garnet and raw material for holmium metal.

Holmium trioxide acts as magnetic material and new electric light source.

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Indium Telluride Industrial Grade 99.99%

Indium telluride is black or blue grey crystal, which is a semiconductor material and thermoelectric material as bismuth telluride. It has a cubic crystal structure and is available with ingot, lump, slug, piece, pellet, powder, rod, wafer, sputtering target. Indium(II) telluride is metastable up to 125℃ at one atmosphere pressure. It is stable in air, which is hard to dissolve in hydrochloric acid. In vacuum, it easily volatilize and vapor is table and does not  decompose. It has strong anisotropy and  metallic conductivity. When 10K, it turns to superconductor. Indium metal and tellurium are the raw material. Indium(III) telluride(In2Te3) is also available.

Indium Telluride

Molecular Formula:InTe

Molecular Weight:242.4

Applications

Indium(II) telluride has thermoelectric power.  It get prospect applications in semiconductor. In2Te3 crystal applies to make infrared detector.

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