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Renin is a protein (enzyme) released by special kidney cells when you have decreased salt (sodium levels) or low blood volume.Renin also plays a role in the release of aldosterone, a hormone that helps control the body's salt and water balance.It participates in the body's renin-angiotensin system.The primary structure of renin precursor consists of 406 amino acids with a pre- and a pro-segment carrying 20 and 46 amino acids.Mature renin contains 340 amino acids and has a mass of 37 kDa.It that acts upon a circulating substrate, angiotensinogen, that undergoes proteolytic cleavage to from the decapeptide angiotensin I,which is further converted into angiotensin II by ACE, the angiotensin-converting enzyme primarily within the capillaries of the lungs.Renin is secreted from kidney cells, which are activated via signaling from the macula densa, which responds to the rate of fluid flow through the distal tubule, by decreases in renal perfusion pressure, and by sympathetic nervous stimulation, mainly through beta-1 receptor activation.Renin is usually measured as the plasma renin activity.

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For athletic purposes, Clomid does not offer a tremendous benefit to women. In men however, the elevation in both follicle stimulating hormone and (primarily) luteinizing hormone will cause natural testosterone production to increase. This effect is especially beneficial to the athlete at the conclusion of a steroid cycle when endogenous testosterone levels are depressed. If endogenous testosterone levels are not brought beck to normal, a dramatic loss in size and strength is likely to occur once the anabolics have been removed. This is due to the fact that without testosterone (or other androgens), the catabolic hormone cortisol becomes the dominant force affecting muscle protein synthesis (quickly bringing about a catabolic metabolism). Often referred to as the post-steroid crash, it can quickly eat up much of your newly acquired muscle. Clomid can play a crucial role in preventing this crash in athletic performance. As for women, the only real use for Clomid is the possible management of endogenous estrogen levels near contest time. This can increase fat loss and muscularity, particularly in female trouble areas such as this hips and thighs. Clomid however often produces troubling side effects in women (discussed below), and is likewise not in very high demand among this group of athletes. Clomid and HCG are also occasionally used periodically during a steroid cycle, in an effort to prevent natural testosterone levels from diminishing. In many instances this practice can prove difficult however, especially when using strong androgens for longer periods of time. Tel:00862781331422 Fax:00862781331422 Cel:+8615337164625 Skype:leslie(at)carphetin(dot)com Email:leslie(at)carphetin(dot)com


Leptin is a 167-amino acid protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including appetite and metabolism. It is one of the most important adipose derived hormones. It has an important role in regulation of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and the immune and inflammatory response. It is manufactured primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue, and the level of circulating leptin is directly proportional to the total amount of fat in the body. Leptin acts on receptors in the hypothalamus of the brain where it inhibits appetite by counteracting the effects of neuropeptide Y, modulates the immune response to atherosclerosis, which is a predisposing factor in patients with obesity, promotes angiogenesis by increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels.


Orexin is a neuropeptide which is released by the posterior lateral hypothalamus, and is linked to wakefulness and sleep, appetite regulation, and the motivation of sexual and addictive behaviors,wakefulness.


Estriol is one of the three major naturally occurring estrogens, the others being estradiol and estrone. Estriol is produced almost exclusively during pregnancy and is the major estrogen produced in the normal human fetus. Estriol has been suggested to be less carcinogenic than estradiol and estrone in animal studies. It has been shown that at doses effective for the relief of postmenopausal symptoms, estriol does not induce endometrial proliferation to the extent of the other estrogens. Estriol may play a role in the development of breast cancer, but based on in vitro research does appear to act as an antagonist to the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor.

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Estrone is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary as well as adipose tissue. Estrone is synthesized via aromatase from androstenedione, a derivative of progesterone. Estrone is a primary estrogenic component of several pharmaceutical preparations, including those containing conjugated and esterified estrogens. Estrone is naturally derived from the peripheral conversion of androstenedione by an aromatase enzyme found in adipose tissues and is converted to estradiol in peripheral tissues. Estropipate is piperazine-stabilized estrone sulfate. Estrone and estropipate are used to treat abnormalities related to gonadotropin hormone dysfunction, vasomotor symptoms, atrophic vaginitis, and vulvar atrophy associated with menopause, and for the prevention of osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency.

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Gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas. Its release is stimulated by peptides in the lumen of the stomach. It is a linear peptide hormone produced by G cells of the duodenum and in the pyloric antrum of the stomach. It is secreted into the bloodstream. Gastrin is found primarily in three forms- gastrin-34, gastrin-74, gastrin-14. It stimulates parietal cell maturation and fundal growth, causes chief cells to secrete pepsinogen, the zymogen (inactive) form of the digestive enzyme pepsin, increases antral muscle mobility and promotes stomach contractions, strengthens antral contractions against the pylorus, and relaxes the pyloric sphincter, which stimulates gastric emptying, induces pancreatic secretions and gallbladder emptying.

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Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide and hormone that is produced mainly by P/D1 cells lining the fundus of the human stomach and epsilon cells of the pancreas that stimulates hunger. Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after meals. It is considered the counterpart of the hormone leptin, produced by adipose tissue, which induces satiation when present at higher levels. It is a potent stimulator of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a significant role in neurotrophy, particularly in the hippocampus, and is essential for cognitive adaptation to changing environments and the process of learning. Ghrelin has been proposed as a hormone which promotes intestinal cell proliferation and inhibits its apoptosis during inflammatory states and oxidative stress. It also suppresses the pro-inflammatory mechanisms and augments anti-inflammatory mechanisms thus creating a possibility of its therapeutic use in various gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions including colitis, ischemia reperfusion injury and sepsis. It has also been shown to have regenerative capacity and is beneficial in case of mucosal injury to the stomach. Ghrelin also enhances the motility of gastrointestinal tract.


Insulin is a natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Insulin permits cells to use glucose for energy.It stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon.Insulin also influences other body functions, such as vascular compliance and cognition.Human insulin is a peptide hormone composed of 51 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 5808 Da. It is produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.It is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus.Insulin also influences other body functions, such as vascular compliance and cognition.

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Relaxin a hormone produced by the ovaries during pregnancy that causes pelvic and cervical expansion and relaxation. It is a heterodimer of two peptide chains of 24 and 29 amino acids linked by disulfide bridges, and it appears related to insulin. In the female, it is produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary, the breast and, during pregnancy, also by the placenta, chorion, and decidua. In the male, it is produced in the prostate and is present in human semen. Relaxin works by simultaneously cutting collagen production and increasing collagen breakdown. It stimulates the growth of the glands in the breasts that are responsible for milk production, and increases the amount of water in the uterus. Relaxin affects collagen metabolism, inhibiting collagen synthesis and enhancing its breakdown by increasing matrix metalloproteinases.


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