Musculoskeletal drugs usd in treating musculoskeletal disorders, muscle pain, tendons, joints

Musculoskeletal-System-agents

Quinine

Quinine is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic,antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which, unlike quinine, is an anti-arrhythmic. Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: the aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine.Quinine is used parenterally to treat life-threatening infections caused by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Quinine acts as a blood schizonticide although it also has gametocytocidal activity against P. vivax and P. malariae.

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Baclofen

Baclofen is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid. It is primarily used to treat spasticity and is under investigation for the treatment of alcoholism. It is an agonist for the GABAB receptors. Its beneficial effects in spasticity result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites. It can also be used to treat hiccups, and has been shown to prevent rises in body temperature induced by the drug MDMA in rats. A very beneficial property of baclofen is that tolerance does not seem to occur to any significant degree-baclofen retains its therapeutic anti-spasmodic effects even after many years of continued use.

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Etodolac

Etodolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Its therapeutic effects are due to its ability to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. It is indicated for relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.It is also used to treat acute and long-term management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as for the management of pain.

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Naproxen

Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness.It is also used for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. It works by inhibiting both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes.Naproxen is a member of the 2-arylpropionic acid (profen) family of NSAIDs. The free acid is an odorless, white to off-white crystalline substance. It is lipid-soluble and practically insoluble in water.It is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis, and acute gout,relief of mild to moderate pain and the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

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Sulindac

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the arylalkanoic acid class.It is used in the treatment of acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. Sulindac is a prodrug, derived from sulfinylindene, that is converted in vivo to an active sulfide compound by liver enzymes.It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indene derivative, also possessing analgesic and antipyretic activities.It is used to treat acute or long-term use in the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute painful shoulder (acute subacromial bursitis/supraspinatus tendinitis), and acute gouty arthritis.

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Suprofen

Suprofen is an ibuprofen-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and has been proposed as an anti-arthritic.It is also used in the eye to lessen problems that can occur during or after some kinds of eye surgery.Suprofen's overdose include bleeding in the eye or redness or swelling of the eye or the eyelid, blurred vision or other change in vision, fever or chills, itching or tearing, nausea or vomiting, pain, sensitivity to light, shortness of breath, sticky or matted eyelashes, swelling of face, throbbing pain, tightness in chest, troubled breathing, and wheezing.

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Tolmetin

Tolmetin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the arylalkanoic acids. It is used primarily to reduce hormones that cause pain, swelling, tenderness, and stiffness in conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.Tolmetin inhibits prostaglandin synthetase in vitro and lowers the plasma level of prostaglandin E in man.The reduction in prostaglandin synthesis may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. Tolmetin does not appear to alter the course of the underlying disease in man.

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Auranofin

Auranofin is an organogold compound classified by the World Health Organization as an antirheumatic agent.It appears to induce heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA.It is used in the treatment of active, progressive or destructive forms of inflammatory arthritis, such as adult rheumatoid arthritis.Auranofin is a gold salt used in treating inflammatory arthritis. Gold salts are called second-line drugs because they are often considered when the arthritis progresses in spite of antiinflammatory drugs.

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Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of symptoms of arthritis, fever, as an analgesic for pain, especially where there is an inflammatory component, and dysmenorrhea. It is known to have an antiplatelet effect, though it is relatively mild and short-lived when compared with aspirin or other better-known antiplatelet drugs.Ibuprofen also acts as a vasodilator, having been shown to dilate coronary arteries and some other blood vessels.

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Ketorolac

Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid derivative, often used as an analgesic. Ketorolac acts by inhibiting the bodily synthesis of prostaglandins. Ketorolac in its oral (tablet or capsule) and intramuscular (injected) preparations is a racemic mixture of both (S)-(-)-ketorolac, the active isomer, and (R)-(+)-ketorolac.Ketorolac is used to treat osteoarthritis and control acute pain, including pain after surgery. It should not be used for more than 5 days.

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