Antibiotics pharmaceuticals kills,slows down bacterial growth, antimicrobials medicines kills microorganisms

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Brefeldin A

Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic produced by fungal organisms such as Eupenicillium brefeldianum. It inhibits transport of proteins from ER to Golgi and induces retrograde protein transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum. This leads to proteins accumulating inside the ER. In mammalian and yeast cells, the main target of brefeldin A appears to be a certain type of GTP-exchange factors responsible for activating a GTPase called Arf1p ; in turn, Arf1p is involved in the formation of transport vesicles by recruiting coat proteins to intracellular membranes. Brefeldin A was initially isolated as an anti-viral antibiotic but is now primarily used in biological research to study protein transport.

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Cefacetrile

Cefacetrile is a broad-spectrum first generation cephalosporin antibiotic effective in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections.It works by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.

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Cefamandole

Cefamandole is a second-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. The clinically used form of cefamandole is the formate ester cefamandole nafate, a prodrug which is administered parenterally. Cefamandole has a broad spectrum of activity and can be used to treat bacterial infections of the skin, bones and joints, urinary tract, and lower respiratory tract.

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Cefpimizole

Cefpimizole is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic.

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Ceftizoxime

Ceftizoxime is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.It can be administered intravenously or by suppository.It is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.

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Clindamycin

Clindamycin is a lincosamide antibiotic. It is usually used to treat infections with anaerobic bacteria but can also be used to treat some protozoal diseases, such as malaria. It is a common topical treatment for acne and can be useful against some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. The veterinary uses of clindamycin are quite similar to its human indications, and include treatment of osteomyelitis, skin infections, and toxoplasmosis, for which it is the preferred drug in dogs and cats.

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Clorobiocin

Clorobiocin is an aminocoumarin. It is used as a antibiotic.

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Cloxacillin

Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. It was discovered and developed by Beecham. It is used against staphylococci that produce beta-lactamase, due to its large R chain, which does not allow the beta-lactamases to bind. This drug has a weaker antibacterial activity than benzylpenicillin, and is devoid of serious toxicity except for allergic reactions.

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Costunolide

Costunolide is a sesquiterpene lactone that is synthesized through the mevalonate pathway. The compound is described to act as an antioxidant, anti-mycobacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral, with cytotoxic activity. Additionally, Costunolide is reported to inhibit the activity of telomerase.

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Cycloserine

Cycloserine is an antibiotic effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is also being trialed as an adjuvant to exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. It has been experimentally used for treatment of Gaucher's disease. It is a partial agonist at the glycine receptor, and has been shown to have cognition-enhancing properties for models of Parkinson’s disease in primates.It is also used as catalyst in the feilds of pharmaceuticals.

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