Antibiotics pharmaceuticals kills,slows down bacterial growth, antimicrobials medicines kills microorganisms

chemical-categories

Cefpodoxime Proxetil

Cefpodoxime Proxetil is an orally administered, extended spectrum, semi-synthetic antibiotic of the cephalosporin class.Cefpodoxime Proxetil is a prodrug that is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and de-esterified to its active metabolite, cefpodoxime.

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Ceftizoxime

Ceftizoxime is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.It can be administered intravenously or by suppository.It is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.

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Ceftriaxone Sodium

Ceftriaxone sodium is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It works by killing certain types of bacteria.

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Cefuroxime Axetil

Cefuroxime Axetil is a second generation oral cephalosporin antibiotic. It is an acetoxyethyl ester prodrug of cefuroxime which is effective orally.

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Cephaloridine

Cephaloridine is a cephalosporin compound with pyridinium-1-ylmethyl and 2-thienylacetamido side groups. Cephaloridine is a first generation semisynthetic derivative of cephalosporin C. Cephaloridine can be synthesised from Cephalotin and pyridine by deacetylation. Cephalosporins have a six membered sulfur containing ring adjoining a β lactam ring. Cephaloridine is very active against gram positive cocci and used in a large variety of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract, skin and urinary tract infections. Antibiotics require constant drug level in body for therapeutic effect. Cephaloridine is, however, highly cytotoxic to the proximal renal tubule, the segment of the nephron responsible for the secretion of organic anions, including para-am-minohippurate (PAH), as well as the various penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. Cephaloridine was used to treat 136 bacterial infections in 122 hospitalized patients. Its antibacterial and clinical effectiveness against serious staphylococcal infections compared favorably with that of cephalothin sodium and of penicillinase-resistant penicillins in similar cases. Cephaloridine was highly effective clinically and in eradicating the causative organisms in infections due to pneumococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; but its effectiveness against klebsielleae was variable. Cephaloridine is excreted in the urine without undergoing metabolism. It inhibits organic ion transport in the kidney. This process is preceded by the lipid peroxidation.

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Cephalotaxine

Cephalotaxine is an antiviral and antitumor agent. It is benzazepine alkaloid isolated from Cephalotaxus harringtonia. Cephalotaxine is used for the determination and identification, pharmacological experiments.

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Cephradine

Cephradine is an antibiotic that belongs to a group of drugs called cephalosporins. Cephradine stops the bacteria from making their protein cell wall, so the bacteria die. Cephradine is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, and bone and joint.

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Cerulenin

Cerulenin is an antifungal antibiotic that inhibits fatty acid and steroid biosynthesis. In fatty acid synthesis, it has been reported to bind in equimolar ratio to b-keto-acyl-ACP synthase, one of the seven moieties of fatty acid synthase, blocking the interaction of malonyl-CoA. It also has the related activity of stimulating fatty acid oxidation through the activation of CPT1, another enzyme normally inhibited by malonyl-CoA. Inhibition involves covalent thioacylation that permanently inactivates the enzymes. These two behaviors may increase the availability of energy in the form of ATP, perhaps sensed by AMPK, in the hypothalamus.

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Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate

Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate is a mixture of variable proportions of sodium (2R,3R)-2-(2,2-dichloroacetamido)-3-hydroxy-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-propyl succinate and sodium (1R,2R)-2-(2,2-dichloroacetamido)-3-hydroxy-1-(4-nitrophenyl) propyl succinate. It also acts as prodrug. It is effective in treating infections caused by organisms susceptible to its antimicrobial effects when less potentially hazardous therapeutic agents are ineffective or contraindicated.

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Chloramphenicol, CAS 56-75-7, chlornitromycin

What is Chloramphenicol? Chloramphenicol is a prototypical broad-spectrum antibiotic. It is a bacteriostatic made of Streptomyces venezuelae by David Gottlieb and became available for clinical application in 1949. It was the first antibiotic to be manufactured synthetically on a large scale. The pharmacokinetics and action mechanism of Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a small molecule which is extremely lipid soluble and relatively unbound to protein. It works by inhibiting protein synthesis through preventing protein chain from extending by inhibiting the peptidyl transferase activity of the bacterial ribosome. It specifically binds to A2451 and A2452 residues in the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit, preventing peptide bond formation. While chloramphenicol and the macrolide class of antibiotics both interact with ribosomes, chloramphenicol is not a macrolide. It directly interferes with substrate binding, whereas macrolides sterically block the progression of the growing peptide. The distribution of Chloramphenicol in the body is not uniform. It is metabolized by the liver to chloramphenicol glucuronate, which is inactive, and the majority of the chloramphenicol dose is excreted by the kidneys as the inactive metabolite, chloramphenicol glucuronate. As a result, the highest concentrations are in the liver and kidney, and the lowest concentrations are in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. When the meninges are not inflamed, the concentration achieved in brain and cerebrospinal fluid is around 30-50%, while the percentage rises to 89% when the meninges are inflamed. Moreover, chloramphenicol increases the absorption of iron.

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