Antibiotics pharmaceuticals kills,slows down bacterial growth, antimicrobials medicines kills microorganisms



Valinomycin is a dodecadepsipeptide antibiotic. It is obtained from the cells of several Streptomyces strains, among which "S. tsusimaensis" and S. fulvissimus. It is a member of the group of natural neutral ionophores because it does not have a residual charge. It consists of enantiomers D- and L-valine, D-hydroxyvaleric acid and L-lactic acid. Structures are alternately bound via amide and ester bridges. Valinomycin is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions within the cell membrane. It functions as a potassium-specific transporter and facilitates the movement of potassium ions through lipid membranes "down" an electrochemical potential gradient. The stability constant K for the potassium-valinomycin complex is 106 and for the sodium-valinomycin complex only 10. This difference is important for maintaining the selectivity of valinomycin for the transport of potassium ions in biological systems. It was recently reported to be the most potent agent against severe acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus in infected Vero E6 cells. It acts as a nonmetallic isoforming agent in potassium selective electrodes.

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Ascofuranone is an antibiotic produced by the fungus Ascochyta visiae that inhibits the Trypanosoma brucei alternative oxidase and is a lead compound in efforts to produce other drugs targeting this enzyme for the treatment of sleeping sickness. The compound is effective both in vitro cell culture and in infections in mice. It has also been reported to have anti-tumor activity, and modulate the immune system.

Azelaic Acid

Azelaic acid is a saturated dicarboxylic acid found naturally in wheat, rye, and barley.It is industrially produced by the ozonolysis of oleic acid. It is effective against a number of skin conditions.It may be useful as a hair growth stimulant.

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Azithromycin is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. It is one of the world's best-selling antibiotics. It is derived from erythromycin, with a methyl-substituted nitrogen atom incorporated into the lactone ring, thus making the lactone ring 15-membered. It is used to treat or prevent certain bacterial infections, most often those causing middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, typhoid, and sinusitis. In recent years, it has been used primarily to prevent bacterial infections in infants and those with weaker immune systems. It is also effective against certain sexually transmitted infections, such as non-gonococcal urethritis, chlamydia, and cervicitis. Recent studies have indicated it also to be effective against late-onset asthma, but these findings are controversial and not widely accepted.

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Bacitracin A

Bacitracin A is a cyclic dodecapeptide and with the most important component of bacitracin.It is effective against several types of Gram-positive organisms, and usually used topically for superficial local infection.

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Balofloxacin is a quinolone antibiotic.

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Cefoperazone is a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is one of few cephalosporin antibiotics effective in treating Pseudomonas bacterial infections which are otherwise resistant to these antibiotics. It exerts its bactericidal effect by inhibiting the bacterial cell wall synthesis, and sulbactam acts as a beta-lactamase inhibitor, to increase the antibacterial activity of cefoperazone against beta-lactamase producing organisms.

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Dipyrithione has been shown to possess anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities.


Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. For respiratory tract infections, it has better coverage of atypical organisms, including mycoplasma and Legionellosis.

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