Cardiovascular drugs used in cardiovascular diseases treatment heart attack, stroke, hypertension


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Acetyldigitoxin is a cardiac glycoside. It is an acetyl derivative of digitoxin. Acetyldigitoxin binds to a site on the extracellular aspect of the α-subunit of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump in the membranes of heart cells (myocytes). This causes an increase in the level of sodium ions in the myocytes, which then leads to a rise in the level of calcium ions. Increased amounts of Ca2+ are then stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and released by each action potential, which is unchanged by acetyldigitoxin. Acetyldigitoxin also increases vagal activity via its central action on the central nervous system, thus decreasing the conduction of electrical impulses through the AV node. This is important for its clinical use in different arrhythmias.

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Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a beta-N9-glycosidic bond.It slows conduction time through the A-V node, can interrupt the reentry pathways through the A-V node, and can restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), including PSVT associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome.

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Alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) is produced endogenously to relax vascular smooth muscle and cause vasodilation. In adult males, the vasodilatory effects of alprostadil on the cavernosal arteries and the trabecular smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa result in rapid arteriolar inflow and expansion of the lacunar spaces within the corpora. In infants, it is used for palliative, not definitive, therapy to temporarily maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus until corrective or palliative surgery can be performed in neonates who have congenital heart defects and who depend upon the patent ductus for survival. In adults, it is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction due to neurogenic, vasculogenic, psychogenic, or mixed etiology. Alprostadil causes vasodilation by means of a direct effect on vascular and ductus arteriosus smooth muscle, preventing or reversing the functional closure of the ductus arteriosus that occurs shortly after birth. Alprostadil must be infused continuously because it is very rapidly metabolized.

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Ambrisentan is a drug indicated for use in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. It functions as an endothelin receptor antagonist, and is selective for the type A endothelin receptor. Ambrisentan is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with WHO class II or III symptoms to improve exercise capacity and delay clinical worsening.

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Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent used for various types of tachyarrhythmias, both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Discovered in 1961, it was not approved for use in the United States until 1985. Despite relatively common side-effects, it is used in arrhythmias that are otherwise difficult to treat with medication. Related newer compounds, such as dronedarone, have lower efficacy but a reduced rate of side-effects.

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Amrinone is a pyridine phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor. It is a drug that may improve the prognosis in patients with congestive heart failure. Amrinone has been shown to increase the contractions initiated in the heart by high gain calcium induced calcium release (CICR). It is used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. It has been studied for use before coronary artery bypass surgery. it increases cardiac contractility, vasodilator, and it acts by inhibiting the breakdown of both cAMP and cGMP by the phosphodiesterase (PDE3) enzyme.

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Anacetrapib is a CETP inhibitor being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia and prevent cardiovascular disease.

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Arbutamine is a synthetic catecholamine with positive chronotropic and inotropic properties.It is used to elicit acute cardiovascular responses, similar to those produced by exercise, in order to aid in diagnosing the presence or absence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients who cannot exercise adequately.

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Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist,a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases.Atenolol is used for a number of conditions including: hypertension, angina, Long cough, acute myocardial infarction, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, and the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.It is also used to treat the symptoms of Graves' disease until antithyroid medication can take effect.Atenolol controls high blood pressure and angina but does not cure them.Atenolol is also used sometimes to prevent migraine headaches and to treat alcohol withdrawal, heart failure, and irregular heartbeat.

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