Cardiovascular drugs used in cardiovascular diseases treatment heart attack, stroke, hypertension

chemical-categories

Bumetanide

Bumetanide is a loop diuretic of the sulfamyl category to treat heart failure. It is often used in people in whom high doses of furosemide are ineffective. The main difference between the two substances is in bioavailability and pharmacodynamic potency. Furosemide is incompletely absorbed in the intestine, and there is substantial inter- and intraindividual differences in bioavailability. Bumetanide is almost completely absorbed, and the absorption is not altered when it is taken with food.

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Candesartan Cilexetil

Candesartan Cilexetil is a prodrug, is hydrolyzed to candesartan during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Candesartan Cilexetil is rapidly and completely bioactivated by ester hydrolysis during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract to candesartan, a selective AT1 subtype angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Candesartan Cilexetil is a drug used for treating high blood pressure (hypertension). It is in a class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and indicated for the treatment of patients with hypertension and patients with chronic heart failure(CHF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

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Candoxatril

Candoxatril is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is the orally-active prodrug of candoxatrilat (UK-73967), the active enantiomer of candoxatrilat (UK-69578), a potent neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic heart failure.Neutral endopeptidase inhibitors such as Candoxatril have a dual mechanism of action. They inhibit two metalloprotease enzymes, neutral endopeptidase and ACE, resulting in an increased availability of natriuretic peptides that exhibit vasodilatory effects and, possibly, tissue protective effects.

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Cicletanine

Cicletanine is a furopyridine low-ceiling diuretic drug, usually used in the treatment of hypertension. It appears to be more potent in salt-sensitive hypertension.

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Clobenfurol

Clobenfurol is belongs to the class of vasodilators used in cardiac diseases.

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Deslanoside

Deslanoside is a cardiac glycoside from the leaves of Digitalis lanata. Deslanoside is a cardiac glycoside used to treat congestive heart failure and supraventricular arrhythmias due to reentry mechanisms, and to control ventricular rate in the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation. Deslanoside inhibits the Na-K-ATPase membrane pump, resulting in an increase in intracellular sodium and calcium concentrations. Deslanoside also acts on the electrical activity of the heart, increasing the slope of phase 4 depolarization, shortening the action potential duration, and decreasing the maximal diastolic potential.

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Digoxin

Digoxin, a cardiac glycoside similar to digitoxin, is used to treat congestive heart failure and supraventricular arrhythmias due to reentry mechanisms, and to control ventricular rate in the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation.

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Diltiazem Hydrochloride

Diltiazem Hydrochloride is an antihypertensive and cardioprotective agent as well as a calcium channel protein inhibitor. Diltiazem Hydrochloride inhibits L-type Ca2+ channels and regulates Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in neutrophils.

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Dobutamine

Dobutamine is a sympathomimetic drug used in the treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Its primary mechanism is direct stimulation of β1 receptors of the sympathetic nervous system. Dobutamine can be used in cases of congestive heart failure to increase cardiac output. It is indicated when parenteral therapy is necessary for inotropic support in the short-term treatment of patients with cardiac decompensation due to depressed contractility, which could be the result of either organic heart disease or cardiac surgical procedures. It is not useful in ischemic heart disease because it increases heart rate and thus increases myocardial oxygen demand. It is synthesized by the reaction of 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-butanone with a simultaneous reduction of formed imine. The methoxyl-protecting groups of this intermediate are cleaved by hydrogen bromide giving dobutamine.

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Dofetilide

Dofetilide is a class III antiarrhythmic agent that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Dofetilide is a specific blocker of the rapid component of the outward delayed rectifier potassium current. This inhibition of potassium channels results in a prolongation of action potential duration and the effective refractory period of accessory pathways. Dofetilide has no effect on sodium channels, adrenergic alpha-receptors, or adrenergic beta-receptors.

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