Cardiovascular drugs used in cardiovascular diseases treatment heart attack, stroke, hypertension



Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that serves as a chemical messenger in the nervous system and permits individual nerve fibers (neurons) to communicate with each other. It belongs to the class of compounds known as monoamines, and more specifically to a subclass of chemicals called catecholamines. Dopamine can act either as an inhibitory mechanism or an excitatory mechanism in the nervous system, depending on the location of dopamine neurons, and the receiving characteristics of the next neuron in the chain. Dopamine is biosynthesized in the body (mainly by nervous tissue and the medulla of the adrenal glands) first by the hydroxylation of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-DOPA via the enzyme tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, also known as tyrosine hydroxylase, and then by the decarboxylation of L-DOPA by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Dopamine is a brain chemical which produces feelings of satisfaction and pleasure. It is heavily secreted while falling in love and commonly found during the attraction phase of a relationship. It has many functions in the brain, including important roles in behavior and cognition, voluntary movement, motivation, punishment and reward, inhibition of prolactin production (involved in lactation and sexual gratification), sleep, mood, and attention, working memory, and learning. Dopaminergic neurons (i.e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is dopamine) are present chiefly in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

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Encainide is an antiarrhythmic drug that blocks Na+ conduction, used as the hydrochloride in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias.

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Enoxaparin Sodium USP 95%

Enoxaparin Sodium is a kind of low molecular weight heparin sodium salt,heparin sodium was benzyl esterized and product was depolymerized under basic condition in the end resulted in Enoxaparin Sodium.Now available information show that majority of the components have a 4-enoxpyranose structure at the end of undergraded chain,15%-25% of the component has a 1,6 anhydride at he end of the degraded chain.

Enoxaparin Sodium is the sodium salt of a depolymerized heparin. It is obtained by alkaline depolymerization of heparin benzyl ester. The starting material, heparin, is obtained exclusively from porcine intestinal mucosa. Enoxaparin Sodium consists of a complex set of oligosaccharides that have not yet been completely characterized.
The weight-average molecular weight of Enoxaparin Sodium is 4,500 Da, the range being between 3,800 and 5,000 Da; about 16 percent have a molecular weight of less than 2,000 Da, the range being between 12.0 and 20.0 percent; about 74 percent have a molecular weight between 2,000 and 8,000 Da, the range being between 68.0 and 82.0 percent. Not more than 18.0 percent have a molecular weight higher than 8,000 Da. When prepared as a solution, the solution is analyzed for clarity and degree of color using a validated method. The degree of sulfation is not less than 1.8 per disaccharide unit. It has a potency of not less than 90 and not more than 125 Anti-Factor Xa International Units (IU) per mg, and not less than 20.0 and not more than 35.0 Anti-Factor IIa IU per mg, calculated on the dried basis. The ratio of anti-factor Xa activity to anti-factor IIa activity is between 3.3 to 5.3.

Storage:Sealed,avoid light and oxygen resistant.

Enoxaparin sodium is a blood thinner. It used to treat and prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism including during pregnancy. It is also used in those with acute coronary syndrome and heart attacks.Other uses include insidekidney dialysis machines.

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Epinephrine is a hormone and neurotransmitter.It increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system.It is indicated for intravenous injection in treatment of acute hypersensitivity, treatment of acute asthmatic attacks to relieve bronchospasm, and treatment and prophylaxis of cardiac arrest and attacks of transitory atrioventricular heart block with syncopal seizures (Stokes-Adams Syndrome).It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels.

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Eplerenone is a class of medications called mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of aldosterone, a natural substance in the body that raises blood pressure.It is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure,used as an adjunct in the management of chronic heart failure. It is similar to the diuretic spironolactone.

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Etilefrine is a cardiac stimulant used as an antihypotensive. It is a sympathomimetic amine of the 3-hydroxy-phenylethanolamine series used in treating orthostatic hypotension of neurological, cardiovascular, endocrine or metabolic origin. Intravenous infusion of this compound increases cardiac output, stroke volume, venous return and blood pressure in man and experimental animals, suggesting stimulation of both α and β adrenergic receptors. However, in vitro studies indicate that etilefrine has a much higher affinity for β1 than for β2 adrenoreceptors.

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Felodipine is a long-acting 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB)b. It acts primarily on vascular smooth muscle cells by stabilizing voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in their inactive conformation. By inhibiting the influx of calcium in smooth muscle cells, felodipine prevents calcium-dependent myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. Felodipine is the most potent CCB in use and is unique in that it exhibits fluorescent activity. In addition to binding to L-type calcium channels, felodipine binds to a number of calcium-binding proteins, exhibits competitive antagonism of the mineralcorticoid receptor, inhibits the activity of calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, and blocks calcium influx through voltage-gated T-type calcium channels. Felodipine is used to treat mild to moderate essential hypertension.

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Fenoldopam is a drug and synthetic benzazepine derivative which acts as a peripheral selective D1 receptor weak partial agonist/antagonist and is used as an anti hypertensive.

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Flecainide belongs to the class of medications known asantiarrhythmics. It is used to treat or prevent abnormal heart rhythms in certain conditions (e.g., paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias, sustained ventricular tachycardia). It works by slowing down the rate of nerve impulses causing the heart to beat, and by making the heart less likely to respond to abnormal impulses.

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Fondaparinux Sodium USP 95%

Fondaparinux is a synthetic pentasaccharide factor Xa inhibitor. Apart from the O-methyl group at the reducing end of the molecule, the identity and sequence of the five monomeric sugar units contained in fondaparinux is identical to a sequence of five monomeric sugar units that can be isolated after either chemical or enzymatic cleavage of the polymeric glycosaminoglycans heparinand heparin sulfate (HS). Within heparin and heparin sulfate this monomeric sequence is thought to form the high-affinity binding site for the anti-coagulant factor antithrombin III (ATIII). Binding of heparin/HS to ATIII has been shown to increase the anti-coagulant activity of antithrombin III 1000 fold. In contrast to heparin, fondaparinux does not inhibit thrombin.
Fondaparinux sodium is an antithrombotic anticoagulant, a Factor Xa inhibitor. Fondaparinux sodium is chemically related to low molecular weight heparins. Its pentasaccharide structure corresponds to the antithrombin III (ATIII) binding site of heparin. Fondaparinux sodium binding at this site potentiates the natural inhibitory effect of ATIII against factor Xa by a factor of approximately 300, which results in inhibition of thrombin generation.

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