Cardiovascular drugs used in cardiovascular diseases treatment heart attack, stroke, hypertension

chemical-categories

Isosorbide Mononitrate

Isosorbide mononitrate is a drug used principally in the treatment of angina pectoris, hypertension, and myocardial infarction and acts by dilating the blood vessels so as to reduce the blood pressure. It is an active metabolite of isosorbide dinitrate and exerts qualitatively similar effects. Isosorbide mononitrate reduces the workload of the heart by producing venous and arterial dilation. Isosorbide mononitrate is primarily metabolized by the liver, but unlike oral isosorbide dinitrate. It is cleared by denitration to isosorbide and glucuronidation as the mononitrate, with 96% of the administered dose excreted.

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Levosimendan

Levosimendan is a calcium sensitiser used in the management of acutely decompensated congestive heart failure. It increases the sensitivity of the heart to calcium, thus increasing cardiac contractility without a rise in intracellular calcium. Levosimendan exerts its positive inotropic effect by increasing calcium sensitivity of myocytes by binding to cardiac troponin C in a calcium-dependent manner. It also has a vasodilatory effect, by opening adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle to cause smooth muscle relaxation. Levosimendan also leads to vasodilation through the opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. By these inotropic and vasodilatory actions, levosimendan increases cardiac output without increasing myocardial oxygen demand. Levosimendan also has a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE)-III inhibitory action that may contribute to the inotropic effect of this compound under certain experimental conditions.

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Lexxel

LEXXEL is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. This fixed combination drug is not indicated for the initial therapy of hypertension. It is a fixed-dose combination of the ACE inhibitor enalapril maleate and the highly vascular selective calcium antagonist felodipine.

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Lidocaine

Lidocaine is an anesthetic agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia and in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia occurring during cardiac manipulation, such as surgery or catheterization, or which may occur during acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxicity, or other cardiac diseases.

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Lisinopril

Lisinopril is a potent, competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). Lisinopril may be used to treat hypertension and symptomatic congestive heart failure, to improve survival in certain individuals following myocardial infarction, and to prevent progression of renal disease in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy.

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Lisinopril Dihydrate

Lisinopril Dihydrate is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor for hypertension, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and renal complications of diabetes mellitus.

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Logimax

Logimax is a a fixed-dose, once-daily combination of the vascular selective calcium antagonist, felodipine, and the cardioselective beta-blocker, metoprolol.Logimax is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension).

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Metaraminol

Metaraminol is a potent sympathomimetic amine used in the prevention and treatment of hypotension due to hemorrhage, spinal anesthesia, and shock associated with brain damage due to trauma or tumor. Metaraminol is also used in the treatment of priapism. It is an adrenergic agonist that acts predominantly at alpha adrenergic receptors and also stimulates the release of norepinephrine. It acts by increasing the force of the heart's pumping action as well as constricting peripheral blood vessels.

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Methoxamine

Methoxamine is a potent sympathomimetic amine that increases both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It is an &aplha;1-adrenergic receptor agonist. It is indicated for prevention and treatment of the acute hypotensive state occurring with spinal anesthesia. It is also indicated as adjunctive treatment of hypotension due to hemorrhage, reactions to medications, surgical complications, and shock associated with brain damage due to trauma or tumor. It has little if any direct effect on the central nervous system. It acts by increasing the force of the heart's pumping action as well as constricting peripheral blood vessels.

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Metoprolol Succinate

Metoprolol Succinate is a cardioselective beta-blocker for hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, disturbances of cardiac rhythm including supraventricular tachycardia, maintenance treatment after myocardial infarction and functional heart disorders with palpitations and for migraine prophylaxis. It is used in the following products; Seloken ZOK, Toprol-XL and Betaloc ZOK.

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