Cardiovascular drugs used in cardiovascular diseases treatment heart attack, stroke, hypertension

chemical-categories

Peruvoside

Peruvoside is a cardiac glycoside for heart failure. It is derived from Thevetia neriifolia.

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Phentermine

Phentermine is a psychostimulant drug of the phenethylamine class, with pharmacology similar to amphetamine. It is used medically as an appetite suppressant. Phentermine is used together with diet and exercise to treat obesity (overweight) in people with risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes. It is a central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of dextroamphetamine. Phentermine is an amphetamine that stimulates neurons to release or maintain high levels of a particular group of neurotransmitters known as catecholamines. High levels of these catecholamines tend to suppress hunger signals and appetite. The drug seems to inhibit reuptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, and seratonin through inhibition or reversal of the reuptake transporters. It may also inhibit MAO enzymes leaving more neurotransmitter available at the synapse. Phentermine (through catecholamine elevation) may also indirectly affect leptin levels in the brain.

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Phenylephrine

Phenylephrine is a sympathomimetic amine that acts predominantly on α-adrenergic receptors. Phenylephrine is now the most common over-the-counter (OTC) decongestant. It is mainly used to treat nasal congestion, but may also be useful in treating hypotension and shock, hypotension during spinal anaesthesia, prolongation of spinal anaesthesia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, symptomatic relief of external or internal hemorrhoids, and to increase blood pressure as an aid in the diagnosis of heart murmurs. Parenteral administration of phenylephrine causes a rise in systolic and diastolic pressures, a slight decrease in cardiac output, and a considerable increase in peripheral resistance. Phenylephrine also causes pulmonary vessel constriction and subsequent increase in pulmonary arterial pressure.

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Practolol

Practolol is a selective beta blocker that has been used in the emergency treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. It reduce the effect of excitemen or physical exertion on heart rate and force of contraction and dilation of blood vessels. It is no longer used as it is highly toxic despite the similarity of its chemical formula to propanolol. The use of practolol has been referred to as the practolol disaster and is considered the worst medical blunders since thalidomide.

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Prenalterol

Prenalterol is a cardiac stimulant which acts as a β1-adrenergic agonist.

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Procainamide

Procainamide is an agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia and in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia occurring during cardiac manipulation, such as surgery or catheterization, or which may occur during acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxicity, or other cardiac diseases. It blocks open sodium channels and prolongs the cardiac action potential and it results in slowed conduction, ultimately the decreased rate of rise of the action potential, which may result in widening of QRS on electrocardiogram.

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Propafenone

Propafenone is a Class 1C antiarrhythmic drug with local anesthetic effects, and a direct stabilizing action on myocardial membranes. It is used in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.

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Propranolol Hydrochloride

Propranolol is belongs to a group of medications known as beta-blockers and is used in the treatment of high blood pressure and other conditions. In patient with high blood pressure, the blood places an abnormally high amount of force on blood vessel walls as it pumps throughout the body. This places extra strain on the heart and forces it to work harder.Symptoms of overdose include bradycardia, cardiac failure, hypotension, and brochospasm. LD50=565 mg/kg (orally in mice).

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Quinidine

Quinidine, a hydantoin anticonvulsant, is used alone or with phenobarbital or other anticonvulsants to manage tonic-clonic seizures, psychomotor seizures, neuropathic pain syndromes including diabetic neuropathy, digitalis-induced cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with QT-interval prolongation. Quinidine sulfate is used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation in the horse.

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Ramipril

Ramipril is a prodrug belonging to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to ramiprilat in the liver and, to a lesser extent, kidneys. Ramiprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). Ramipril may be used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, nephropathy, and to reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events.

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