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Antimony

Antimony is a toxic chemical element. It is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite. Although the use of antimony is limited by its toxicity, its compounds have been of fundamental value in chemistry. Antimony compounds are prominent fire retardants found in many commercial and domestic products. Certain alloys are valuable for use in solders and ball bearings. An emerging application is the use of antimony in microelectronics. Few biological or medical applications exist for antimony. Treatments principally containing antimony are known as antimonials and are used as emetics. Antimony compounds are used as antiprotozoan drugs.

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Europium

Europium is a chemical element, which was named after the continent of Europe. It is a moderately hard silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. It has no significant biological role and is relatively non-toxic compared to other heavy metals. It is a dopant in some types of glass in lasers and other optoelectronic devices. It is also used in the manufacture of fluorescent glass. Europium oxide is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and fluorescent lamps, and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors. Europium fluorescence is used to interrogate biomolecular interactions in drug-discovery screens. It is also used in the anti-counterfeiting phosphors in Euro banknotes.

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LIPREN T

LIPREN T is an aqueous, colloidal dispersion of a polymer of 2-chlorobutadiene (1,3). Its vulcanizates have a slight to medium crystallization tendency and undergo little discoloration when exposed to light. LIPREN T is mainly used in the production of dipped goods, internal and external proofing of fire hoses and impregnation, coating and lamination of fabrics. LIPREN T has the advantage that it can be processed both by the conventional coagulant process as well as by the heat sensitizing process.

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Rubidium

Rubidium is metallic element of the alkali metal group. German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. Its compounds have chemical and electronic applications. It has also been considered for use in a thermoelectric generator using the magnetohydrodynamic principle, where rubidium ions are formed by heat at high temperature and passed through a magnetic field. These conduct electricity and act like an armature of a generator thereby generating an electric current. It is the main component of secondary frequency references to maintain frequency accuracy in cell site transmitters and other electronic transmitting, networking and test equipment. This rubidium standard are often used with GPS to produce a "primary frequency standard" that has greater accuracy and is less expensive than caesium standards. Other potential or current uses of rubidium include a working fluid in vapor turbines, a getter in vacuum tubes and a photocell component.

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Selenium

Selenium is a nonmetal, chemically related to sulfur and tellurium, and rarely occurs in its elemental state in nature. It conducts electricity better in the light than in the dark, and is used in photocells. It is found in economic quantities in sulfide ores such as pyrite, partially replacing the sulfur in the ore matrix. The chief commercial uses for selenium today are in glass making and in chemicals and pigments. Uses in electronics, once important, have been supplanted by silicon semiconductor devices. It is used widely in vitamin preparations and other dietary supplements, in small doses. Some livestock feeds are fortified with selenium as well. It is used in the toning of photographic prints. Selenium is a catalyst in many chemical reactions and is widely used in various industrial and laboratory syntheses, especially organoselenium chemistry. It is also widely used in structure determination of proteins and nucleic acids by X-ray crystallography.

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Tantalum

Tantalum is a rare, hard, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion resistant. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor component in alloys. The chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum, but its main use today is in tantalum capacitors in electronic equipment such as mobile phones, DVD players, video game systems and computers. Tantalum, always together with the chemically similar niobium, occurs in the minerals tantalite, columbite and coltan.

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Thallium

The two chemists, William Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy, discovered thallium independently in 1861 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. Both discovered the new element in residues of sulfuric acid production. Approximately 60–70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry, and the rest is used in the pharmaceutical industry and in glass manufacturing. It is also used in infrared detectors. It is highly toxic and was used in rat poisons and insecticides. Its use has been cut back or eliminated in many countries because of its nonselective toxicity.

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m-Cresol

m-Cresol is a phenol. Amongst its uses it can be used as a solvent for dissolving polymers, most notably the conducting polymer polyaniline. When polyaniline is cast from a solution of m-cresol or a polyaniline film is exposed to m-cresol vapor the conductivity is higher than a polyaniline film cast without the presence of m-cresol.

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o-Cresol

o-Cresol is a phenol. It is an isomer of p-cresol, m-cresol and anisole. Cresols are used to dissolve other chemicals, as disinfectants and deodorizers, and to make specific chemicals that kill insect pests. They are found in many foods and in wood and tobacco smoke, crude oil, coal tar, and in brown mixtures such as creosote, cresolene and cresylic acids, which are wood preservatives.

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Beryllium

Beryllium is a divalent element which only occurs naturally in combination with other elements in minerals. It is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, notably beryllium copper. In structural applications, high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density make beryllium a quality aerospace material for high-speed aircraft, missiles, space vehicles and communication satellites. Because of its low density and atomic mass, beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation; therefore, it is the most common window material for X-ray equipment and in particle physics experiments. The high thermal conductivity of beryllium and beryllium oxide have led to their use in heat transport and heat sinking applications.

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