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Carbon

Carbon is nonmetallic and tetravalent-making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. The major economic use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil (petroleum). Crude oil is used by the petrochemical industry to produce, amongst others, gasoline and kerosene, through a distillation process, in refineries. Cellulose is a natural, carbon-containing polymer produced by plants in the form of cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose is mainly used for maintaining structure in plants. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. It can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils used for writing and drawing. It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment, as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming, in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink, artist's oil paint and water colours, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner. It is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Carbon acts as a macronutrient for the body, and is thus greatly required.

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Cobalt

Cobalt is found naturally only in chemically combined form. It is used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. Cobalt silicate and cobalt(II) aluminate give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, smalt, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. Lithium cobalt oxide is widely used in lithium ion battery cathodes. Several cobalt compounds are used in chemical reactions as oxidation catalysts. Other uses of cobalt are in electroplating, owing to its attractive appearance, hardness and resistance to oxidation, and as ground coats for porcelain enamels.

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GUMMIN

GUMMIN is universal plate processing gum. It is particularly for automatic application.

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Nafion

Nafion is a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymer-copolymer. It is the first of a class of synthetic polymers with ionic properties. It has found use in fuel cells, electrochemical devices, chlor-alkali production, metal-ion recovery, water electrolysis, plating, surface treatment of metals, batteries, sensors, Donnan dialysis cells, drug release, gas drying or humidifaction, and superacid catalysis for the production of fine chemicals.

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Nickel

Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt. Historically it has been used for plating metals such as iron and brass, for chemical apparatus, and in certain alloys such as German silver. It is still used for corrosion-resistant pure-nickel plating. As a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation. Enzymes of some microorganisms and plants contain nickel as an active center, which makes the metal an essential nutrient for them. It is used in many industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, coinage, rechargeable batteries, electric guitar strings, microphone capsules, and special alloys.

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UNIGUM

UNIGUM is universal plate gum for manual and automatic application.

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Cadmium

Cadmium was discovered simultaneously by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. It occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores and therefore is a byproduct of zinc production. It was used for a long time as a pigment and for corrosion resistant plating on steel while cadmium compounds were used to stabilize plastic. With the exception of its use in nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium telluride solar panels, the use of cadmium is generally decreasing in its other applications. These declines have been due to competing technologies, cadmium’s toxicity in certain forms and concentration and resulting regulations. Cadmium is used as a barrier to control neutrons in nuclear fission. Cadmium oxide is used in black and white television phosphors and in the blue and green phosphors for color television picture tubes. Cadmium sulfide is used as a photoconductive surface coating for photocopier drums. In PVC, cadmium was used as heat, light, and weathering stabilizers. It is used in many kinds of solder and bearing alloys, due to a low coefficient of friction and fatigue resistance. It is also found in some of the lowest-melting alloys, such as Wood's metal. Helium-cadmium lasers are a common source of blue-ultraviolet laser light. They operate at either 325 or 422 nm and are used in fluorescence microscopes and various laboratory experiments. Cadmium is one of six substances banned by the European Union's Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which bans certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment but allows for certain exemptions and exclusions from the scope of the law.

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KOROGUARD

KOROGUARD is a liquid based system used in combination with mineral acid pickling of delicate/normal/threaded steel parts. KOROGUARD inhibits acidic attack on iron and steel and gently removes the scale and cleans with care. KOROGUARD does not let corrosion embrittlement which often happens using traditional acid based stripping/pickling solutions.

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SYNTHAGUM

Synthetic plate protection gum for automatic application.

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Gictane 70

Gictane 70 is a powdered, acidic, fluoride useful in acid pickle of metals. It is much less hazardous to handle than liquid Hydrofluoric acid.

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