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Erythritol

Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol .It occurs naturally in fruits and fermented foods.It is a unique low calorie bulk sweetener.It is also used in polymers, fine chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates.

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Lamivudine

Lamivudine is a potent nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nRTI). It has been used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B at a lower dose than for treatment of HIV. It improves the seroconversion of e-antigen positive hepatitis B and also improves histology staging of the liver. Long term use of lamivudine unfortunately leads to emergence of a resistant hepatitis B virus (YMDD) mutant. Despite this, lamivudine is still used widely as it is well tolerated.

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Piperidine

Piperidine is an organic compound. This heterocyclic amine consists of a six-membered ring containing five methylene units and one nitrogen atom. It is a widely used building block and chemical reagent in the synthesis of organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals. It is used as a solvent and as a base. A significant industrial application of piperidine is for the production of dipiperidinyl dithiuram tetrasulfide, which is used as a rubber vulcanization accelerator.

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Ambrisentan

Ambrisentan is a drug indicated for use in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. It functions as an endothelin receptor antagonist, and is selective for the type A endothelin receptor. Ambrisentan is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with WHO class II or III symptoms to improve exercise capacity and delay clinical worsening.

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Amisulpride

Amisulpride is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat psychosis in schizophrenia and episodes of mania in bipolar disorder. In small doses it is also used to treat depression.

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D-Histidine

D-Histidine is used as intermediates of fine chemicals and pharmaceutical.

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Glimepiride

Glimepiride is the first III generation sulphonyl urea.It is a very potent sulphonyl urea with long duration of action.It works by lowering blood glucose appears to be dependent on stimulating the release of insulin from functioning pancreatic beta cells, and increasing sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin.It is used in the treatment of type II diabetes.

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Simvastatin

Simvastatin is a derivative of lovastatin and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hydroxymethylglutaryl COA reductases), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL receptors, it increases breakdown of LDL cholesterol. The 6-membered lactone ring of simvastatin is hydrolyzed in vivo to generate mevinolinic acid, an active metabolite structurally similar to HMG-CoA (hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA). Once hydrolyzed, simvastatin competes with HMG-CoA for HMG-CoA reductase, a hepatic microsomal enzyme. Interference with the activity of this enzyme reduces the quantity of mevalonic acid, a precursor of cholesterol.

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Theobromine

Theobromine is a bitter xanthine alkaloid of the cacao, plantisomer of theophylline, as well as paraxanthine. Theobromine is the primary alkaloid found in cocoa and chocolate. Theobromine is used as a vasodilator (a blood vessel widener), a diuretic (urination aid), and heart stimulant. Theobromine is an isomer of theophylline, as well as paraxanthine. Theobromine was first discovered in 1841 in cacao beans by Russian chemist Alexander Voskresensky. Theobromine has also been used in birth defect experiments involving mice and rabbits. Theobromine is known to induce gene mutations in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. Theobromine is weaker in both its inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and its antagonism of adenosine receptors.

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Zearalenone

Zearalenone is also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Giberella species.It is the primary toxin causing infertility, abortion or other breeding problems, especially in swine.It is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops,such as maize, barley, oats, wheat, rice, and sorghum and also in bread.

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