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D-Histidine

D-Histidine is used as intermediates of fine chemicals and pharmaceutical.

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Glimepiride

Glimepiride is the first III generation sulphonyl urea.It is a very potent sulphonyl urea with long duration of action.It works by lowering blood glucose appears to be dependent on stimulating the release of insulin from functioning pancreatic beta cells, and increasing sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin.It is used in the treatment of type II diabetes.

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Simvastatin

Simvastatin is a derivative of lovastatin and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hydroxymethylglutaryl COA reductases), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL receptors, it increases breakdown of LDL cholesterol. The 6-membered lactone ring of simvastatin is hydrolyzed in vivo to generate mevinolinic acid, an active metabolite structurally similar to HMG-CoA (hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA). Once hydrolyzed, simvastatin competes with HMG-CoA for HMG-CoA reductase, a hepatic microsomal enzyme. Interference with the activity of this enzyme reduces the quantity of mevalonic acid, a precursor of cholesterol.

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Theobromine

Theobromine is a bitter xanthine alkaloid of the cacao, plantisomer of theophylline, as well as paraxanthine. Theobromine is the primary alkaloid found in cocoa and chocolate. Theobromine is used as a vasodilator (a blood vessel widener), a diuretic (urination aid), and heart stimulant. Theobromine is an isomer of theophylline, as well as paraxanthine. Theobromine was first discovered in 1841 in cacao beans by Russian chemist Alexander Voskresensky. Theobromine has also been used in birth defect experiments involving mice and rabbits. Theobromine is known to induce gene mutations in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. Theobromine is weaker in both its inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and its antagonism of adenosine receptors.

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Zearalenone

Zearalenone is also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Giberella species.It is the primary toxin causing infertility, abortion or other breeding problems, especially in swine.It is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops,such as maize, barley, oats, wheat, rice, and sorghum and also in bread.

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Bicalutamide

Bicalutamide is an oral non-steroidal anti-androgen used in the treatment of prostate cancer and hirsutism. Bicalutamide acts as a pure anti-androgen by binding to the androgen receptor (AR) and preventing the activation of the AR and subsequent upregulation of androgen responsive genes by androgenic hormones. Bicalutamide is indicated for the treatment of stage D2 metastatic prostate cancer in combination with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue or as a monotherapy. It has also been used in clinical trials for ovarian cancer. It has also been used in combination with castration. Bicalutamide is currently tested for treatment of andogen receptor positive metastatic breast cancer.

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FOLIC ACID

Folic acid (also known as vitamin B9vitamin Bc or folacin) and folate, as well as pteroyl-L-glutamic acidpteroyl-L-glutamate, and pteroylmonoglutamic acid are forms of the water-soluble vitamin B9. Folic acid is itself not biologically active, but its biological importance is due to tetrahydrofolate and other derivatives after its conversion to dihydrofolic acid in the liver.

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Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs.It is a glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent.It regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation and Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.It acts as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant.It is also used to treat difficult ear infections, especially in dogs. It can also be combined with trichlormethiazide to treat horses with swelling of distal limbs and general bruising.Dexamethasone is used in transvenous screw-in cardiac pacing leads to minimize the inflammatory response of the myocardium,used as a direct chemotherapeutic agent in certain hematological malignancies, especially in the treatment of multiple myeloma.

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