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Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy.It is used by mouth for constipation and either by mouth or in the rectum for hepatic encephalopathy.It generally begins working after eight to twelve hours but may take up to two days to improve constipation.It is classified as an osmotic laxative.It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.Lactulose is made from the milk sugar lactose, which is composed of two simple sugars, galactose and glucose.Lactulose is used in the treatment of chronic constipation in patients of all ages as a long-term treatment.Lactulose is used for chronic idiopathic constipation, i.e. chronic constipation occurring without any identifiable cause.Lactulose may be used to counter the constipating effects of opioids, and in the symptomatic treatment of hemorrhoids as a stool softener.Lactulose is useful in treating hyperammonemia (high blood ammonia), which can lead to hepatic encephalopathy.Lactulose helps trap the ammonia (NH3) in the colon and bind to it.[15] It does this by using gut flora to acidify the colon, transforming the freely diffusible ammonia into ammonium (NH+4) which can no longer diffuse back into the blood.It is a disaccharide (double-sugar) formed from one molecule each of the simple sugars (monosaccharides) fructose and galactose.Lactulose is not normally present in raw milk but is a product of heat-processes.

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The main use of calcium carbonate is in the construction industry, either as a building material or limestone aggregate for roadbuilding or as an ingredient of cement or as the starting material for the preparation of builder's lime by burning in a kiln. Calcium carbonate is also used in the purification of iron from iron ore in a blast furnace. Calcium carbonate is calcined in situ to give calcium oxide, which forms a slag with various impurities present, and separates from the purified iron.

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Linamarin is a cyanogenic glucoside found in the leaves and roots of plants such as cassava, lima beans, and flax. It is a glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin. Upon exposure to enzymes and gut flora in the human intestine, linamarin and its methylated relative lotaustralin can decompose to the toxic chemical hydrogen cyanide; hence food uses of plants that contain significant quantities of linamarin require extensive preparation and detoxification. Ingested and absorbed linamarin is rapidly excreted in the urine and the glucoside itself does not appear to be acutely toxic. Consumption of cassava products with low levels of linamarin is widespread in the low-land tropics. Ingestion of food prepared from insufficiently processed cassava roots with high linamarin levels has been associated with dietary toxicity, particularly with the upper motor neuron disease known as konzo to the African populations in which it was first described by Trolli and later through the research network initiated by Hans Rosling. However, the toxicity is believed to be induced by ingestion of acetone cyanohydrin, the breakdown product of linamarin. Dietary exposure to linamarin has also been reported as a risk factor in developing glucose intolerance and diabetes, although studies in experimental animals have been inconsistent in reproducing this effect and may indicate that the primary effect is in aggravating existing conditions rather than inducing diabetes on its own.

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