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Wortmannin

Wortmannin, a furanosteroid metabolite of the fungi Penicillium funiculosum, Talaromyces wortmannii, is a specific, covalent inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). It has an in vitro inhibitory concentration of around 5 nM, making it a more potent inhibitor than LY294002, another commonly used PI3K inhibitor. It displays a similar potency in vitro for the class I, II, and III PI3K members although it can also inhibit other PI3K-related enzymes such as mTOR, DNA-PK, some phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases, myosin light chain kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase at high concentrations. Wortmannin has also been reported to inhibit members of the polo-like kinase family with IC50 in the same range as for PI3K. The half-life of wortmannin in tissue culture is about 10 minutes due to the presence of the highly reactive C20 carbon that is also responsible for its ability to covalently inactivate PI3K. Wortmannin is a commonly used cell biology reagent that has been used previously in research to inhibit DNA repair, receptor-mediated endocytosis and cell proliferation.

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Xanthosine

Xanthosine is a nucleoside derived from xanthine and ribose.

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Yessotoxin

Yessotoxins are a group of lipophilic sulphated polyester compounds that are structurally related to brevetoxins and ciguatoxins. They are produced by a number of planktonic algal species particularly the dinoflagellates, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Gonylaulax spiniferia and Protoceratium reticulatum.

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Zeaxanthin

Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature. It is important in the xanthophyll cycle. It is synthesized plants and some micro-organisms, it is the pigment that gives paprika (made from bell peppers), corn, saffron, and many other plants and microbes their characteristic color. It belongs to a group of pigments known as xanthophylls or oxycarotenoids which have no provitamin A activity. Zeaxanthin is intended for use as a color and as a nutrient supplement in foods such as baked goods and baking mixes, beverages and beverage bases, breakfast cereals, chewing gum, dairy product analogues.

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Zopiclone

Zopiclone is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agent.

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