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Dextran is a complex branched glucan (polysaccharide made of many glucose molecules) composed of chains of varying lengths (from 3 to 2000 kilodaltons). Dextran was first discovered by Louis Pasteur as a microbial product in wine.but mass production was only possible after the development by Allene Jeanes of a process using bacteria. Dextran is now synthesized from sucrose by certain lactic acid bacteria, the best-known being Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Streptococcus mutans. Dental plaque is rich in dextrans. Dextrans are available in multiple molecular weights ranging from 3,000 Da to 2,000,000 Da. The larger dextrans (>60,000 Da) are excreted poorly from the kidney, so remain in the blood for as long as weeks until they are metabolized. It is used in some eye drops as a lubricant. Dextran is used in the osmotic stress technique for applying osmotic pressure to biological molecules.It is also used in some size-exclusion chromatography matrices; an example is Sephadex.Dextran has also been used in bead form to aid in bioreactor applications.It has been used in immobilization in biosensors.Dextran preferentially binds to early endosomes; fluorescent-labelled dextran can be used to visualize these endosomes under a fluorescent microscope. Dextran can be used as a stabilizing coating to protect metal nanoparticles from oxidation and improve biocompatibility.

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Dextrin is used in producing nutritional products.


Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glycoside occurring in plants. Its biosynthesis has been elucidated. It is hydrolyzed in the stomach of an insect into a carbohydrate and aglycone. The aglycone is unstable and releases hydrogen cyanide.


Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is an herbicide used to control annual and perennial rose weeds in grain crops and highlands, and it is used to control brush and bracken in pastures. It will kill broadleaf weeds before and after they sprout. Legumes will be killed by dicamba. In combination with a phenoxyalkanoic acid or another herbicide, dicamba is used in pastures, range land, and noncrop areas (fence rows, roadways and wastage) to control weeds. Brand names for formulations of this herbicide include Banvel, Oracle and Vanquish. It is in the benzoic acid family of herbicides. It is a light tan, slightly phenolic, crystalline liquid.

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Dinocap is a dark oily liquid, nearly insoluble in water. It is used as a fungicide and acaricide.

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Dinoseb is an herbicide in the dinitrophenol family.


Dubnium is a radioactive synthetic element, named after town of Dubna in Russia, where it was first produced. In the 1960s, microscopic amounts of dubnium were produced in laboratories in the former Soviet Union and in California. The priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, and it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) established Soviet team priority and a compromise name of dubnium as the official name for the element.

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Enaptin is a nuclear envelope protein found in human myocytes and synapses, which is made up of 8,797 amino acids. Post-translational amino acid modifications can be possible. Enaptin is involved in the maintenance of nuclear organization and structural integrity, tethering the cell nucleus to the cytoskeleton by interacting with the nuclear envelope and with F-actin in the cytoplasm. It has a remarkable structure with a coiled alpha-helical region and a large beta-sheet region in the upper part and at least four alpha-helices spliced together, indicating the similarity with collagen. The structural integrity of Enaptin can be shown by determining whether the protein forms a condensed supramolecule.

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