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Calcium Carbide

Calcium Carbide is a chemical compound containing calcium and carbide.Pure form of calcium carbide is colorless, but most of the material is produced industrially.It is made in a kind of furnace called an electric arc furnace, which can reach temperatures much hotter than those that are obtained through simple combustion. The basic chemical method used to make the material has not changed since it was discovered in 1888.Calcium carbide reacts with nitrogen at high temperature to form calcium cyanamide.Calcium carbide is used in carbide lamps, used in the desulfurisation of iron, as a fuel in steelmaking to extend the scrap ratio to liquid iron,as a powerful deoxidizer at ladle treatment facilities.Calcium carbide is used in toy cannons such as the Big-Bang Cannon, as well as in bamboo cannons.

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Calcium Formate

Calcium formate, is the calcium salt of formic acid. It is used as a food additive. The mineral form is very rare and called formicaite. It is known from a few boron deposits. It may be produced synthetically by reacting calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide with formic acid.

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Calcium Hydride

Calcium hydride reacts vigorously with water liberating hydrogen gas. It is thus used as a drying agent. It is widely used as a desiccant for basic solvents such as amines and pyridine. It is also used to pre-dry solvents prior to the use of a more reactive desiccant.

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Calcium Nitrite

Calcium nitrite is used as hardening accelerator for cement and antifreeze inhibitor. Besides, it is also used as corrosion inhibitors for the pharmaceutical industry, organic synthesis and lubricants.

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Carbon Monoxide

In 1776, the French chemist de Lassone produced carbon monoxide by heating zinc oxide with coke. Carbon Monoxide is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon Monoxide is conveniently produced in the laboratory by the dehydration of formic acid or oxalic acid, for example with sulfuric acid. Carbon Monoxide is present in small amounts in the atmosphere, chiefly as a product of volcanic activity but also from natural and man-made fires. Carbon Monoxide occurs dissolved in molten volcanic rock at high pressures in the Earth's mantle. It is toxic to humans and animals when encountered in higher concentrations, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions. Carbon Monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. It is the simplest oxocarbon, and isoelectronic with the cyanide ion and molecular nitrogen. Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds. Carbon Monoxide also binds to other molecules such as myoglobin and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Carbon Monoxide may have severe adverse effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman. Carbon Monoxide is produced naturally by the human body as a signaling molecule. Carbon Monoxide is a nutrient for methanogenic bacteria,a building-block for acetylcoenzyme A. Carbon Monoxide has an indirect radioactive forcing effect by elevating concentrations of methane and tropospheric ozone through chemical reactions with other atmospheric constituents.

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Chloral Hydrate

Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. It was discovered through the chlorination of ethanol in 1832 by Justus von Liebig in Gießen. Its sedative properties were first published in 1869 and subsequently, because of its easy synthesis, its use was widespread. It was widely used recreationally and misprescribed in the late 19th century. A solution of chloral hydrate in alcohol called "knockout drops" was used to prepare a Mickey Finn. More reputable uses of chloral hydrate include its use as a clearing agent of chitin and as a key ingredient of Hoyer's mounting medium, which is used for slide-mounted observation of organisms under a large microscope. In electroplating industry it is used to adjust the electronic potential difference in semi-bright nickel plating and in agriculture, it is used as intermediate of herbicide and other kinds of pesticides .

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Chlorendic Acid

Chlorendic acid is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used in the synthesis of some flame retardants and polymers. It is a common breakdown product of several organochlorine insecticides. It is industrially produced in high volumes by Diels-Alder reaction. It is used as an intermediate in synthesis of unsaturated flame-retardant polyester resins and plasticizers, and as a finishing flame-retardant treatment for wool. A major use is in production of fiberglass-reinforced resins for chemical industry equipment. It can be used to make alkyd resins for use in special inks and paints. It is used as a hardening agent in epoxy resins used in manufacture of printed circuit boards. When reacted with nonhalogenated glycols, it forms halogenated polyols used as flame retardants in polyurethane foams. It is also used for production of dibutyl chlorendate and dimethyl chlorendate, which are used as reactive flame retardants in plastics. In limited amounts, it is used as an additive in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer.

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Cobalt Chloride

Cobalt chloride is an inorganic compound of cobalt and chlorine. Because of the ease of the hydration or dehydration reaction, and the resulting color change, cobalt chloride is used as an indicator for water in desiccants. Niche uses include its role in organic synthesis and electroplating objects with cobalt metal. It gives a blue-green color in a flame.

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Cobalt Monoxide

Cobalt monoxide is an inorganic compound. It is used extensively in the ceramics industry as an additive to create blue colored glazes and enamels as well as in the chemical industry for producing cobalt(II) salts.

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