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Salicylaldehyde is a chemical compound. Along with 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, it is one of the three isomers of hydroxybenzaldehyde. This colorless oily liquid has a bitter almond odor at higher concentration and a characteristic buckwheat aroma at lower concentration. Salycylaldehyde was identified as a characteristic aroma component of buckwheat. It is a key precursor to a variety chelating agents, some of which are commercially important.

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Silicon Carbide

Silicon carbide is a compound of silicon and carbon. Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics which are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests. Electronic applications of silicon carbide as light emitting diodes and detectors in early radios were first demonstrated around 1907, and nowadays silicon carbide is widely used in high-temperature/high-voltage semiconductor electronics.

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Silicon Dioxide

Silicon dioxide (Silica) is an oxide of silicon. It is most commonly found in nature as sand or quartz, as well as in the cell walls of diatoms. It is used primarily in the production of glass for windows, drinking glasses, beverage bottles, and many other uses. The majority of optical fibers for telecommunications are also made from silica. It is a primary raw material for many whiteware ceramics such as earthenware, stoneware, porcelain, as well as industrial Portland cement. It is a common additive in the production of foods, where it is used primarily as a flow agent in powdered foods, or to absorb water in hygroscopic applications. It is the primary component of diatomaceous earth which has many uses ranging from filtration to insect control. It is also the primary component of rice husk ash which is used, for example, in filtration and cement manufacturing. Thin films of silica grown on silicon wafers via thermal oxidation methods can be quite beneficial in microelectronics, where they act as electric insulators with high chemical stability. In electrical applications, it can protect the silicon, store charge, block current, and act as a controlled pathway to limit current flow. A silica-based aerogel was used in the Stardust spacecraft to collect extraterrestrial particles. It is also used in the extraction of DNA and RNA due to its ability to bind to the nucleic acids under the presence of chaotropes. As hydrophobic silica it is used as a defoamer component. In hydrated form, it is used in toothpaste as a hard abrasive to remove tooth plaque. In cosmetics, it is useful for its light-diffusing properties and natural absorbency. Colloidal silica is used as a wine and juice fining agent. In pharmaceutical products, silica aids powder flow when tablets are formed.

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Silver Chloride

Silver chloride is used to make photographic paper since it reacts with photons to form latent image and via photoreduction. The silver chloride electrode is a common reference electrode in electrochemistry. It has been used as an antidote for mercury poisoning, assisting in the elimination of mercury. It is used to create yellow, amber, and brown shades in stained glass manufacture. It is also used in bandages and wound healing products.

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Silver Fluoride

Silver Fluoride is a compound of silver and fluorine. It is made from silver (I) carbonate and hydrofluoric acid. It finds most application in organofluorine chemistry for addition of fluoride across multiple bonds, and as silver source for use in oxygen-sensitive applications.

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Silver(I) Oxide

Silver(I) Oxide is the chemical compound with a fine black or dark brown powder that is used to prepare other silver compounds. Silver(I) Oxide can be prepared by combining aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and an alkali hydroxide. It is used in some silver-oxide batteries, as is the silver(I,III)oxide, Ag4O4.

Sodium Benzoate

Sodium benzoate is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It is a preservative. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is used most prevalently in acidic foods. It is also found in alcohol-based mouthwash and silver polish. It can also be found in cough syrups like Robitussin. Some shampoos such as Pert 2-in-1 contain sodium benzoate as well. It is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder that emits a whistling noise when compressed into a tube and ignited. The fuel is also one of the fastest burning rocket fuels and provides a lot of thrust and smoke.

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Sodium Chromate

Sodium chromate is a chemical compound used as a corrosion inhibitor in the petroleum industry, a dyeing auxiliary in the textile industry, as a wood preservative, and as a diagnostic pharmaceutical in determining red blood cell volume. It is obtained from the reaction of sodium dichromate with sodium hydroxide. It is hygroscopic and can form tetra-, hexa-, and decahydrates.

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Sodium Ethoxide

Sodium ethoxide is used in wide range of applications in organic synthesis; Agrochemicals; Pharmaceuticals, colorants and aroma chemicals. It is also used in manufacturing detergents and biodiesel. They also act as catalysts in polymerization and isomerizations.

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