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H2S is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. It often results from the bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.


Tin is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as tin dioxide. It is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. It has long been used as a solder in the form of an alloy with lead. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Because of its low toxicity, tin-plated metal is also used for food packaging, giving the name to tin cans, which are made mostly of steel. Tin in combination with other elements forms a wide variety of useful alloys. It is most commonly alloyed with copper. Window glass is most often made via floating molten glass on top of molten tin in order to make a flat surface. Tin(II) fluoride is added to some dental care products as stannous fluoride. Of all the chemical compounds of tin, the organotin compounds are most heavily used. The major commercial application of organotin compounds is in the stabilization of PVC plastics. Organotin compounds can have a relatively high toxicity, which is both advantageous and problematic. They have been used for their biocidal effects in fungicides, pesticides, algaecides, wood preservatives, and antifouling agents. Some tin reagents are useful in organic chemistry. In the largest application, stannous chloride is a common reducing agent for the conversion of nitro and oxime groups to amines.

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Agar is a gelatinous substance derived by boiling a polysaccharide in red algae, where it accumulates in the cell walls of agarophyte and serves as the primary structural support for the algae's cell walls.Agar exhibits hysteresis, melting at 85 °C and solidifying from 32-40 °C.Agar is used throughout the world to provide a solid surface containing medium for the growth of bacteria and fungi. Agar-Agar is used in dairy based products like yoghurts, ice- creams, mousses, chocolate milks, custard tarts, custards, etc. It is a cost effective stabilizer for dairy products where water retention is of importance. It can also be mixed with other colloids to improve their final texture.

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Gold is the most malleable and ductile metal known. It has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions, gold has many practical uses in dentistry, electronics, and other fields. Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions. However, only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, as elemental gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body. In modern times, injectable gold has been proven to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. Its high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity lead to many uses of gold, including electric wiring, colored glass production and even gold leaf eating. Gold leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient.

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HATU is used for synthesis of Nα-urethane protected β-amino alcohols and peptide alcohols. The aspartate epimerization can be controlled during the coupling of caspase specific tetrapeptides with aromatic amines by HATU as a coupling reagent and 2,4,6-tri-tert-butyl-pyridine (TBP) as additive. Also used in rapid automated derivatization of solid-phase supports for oligonucleotide synthesis.

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Iron is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element in the whole planet Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core, and it is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Iron plays an important role in biology, forming complexes with molecular oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin; these two compounds are common oxygen transport proteins in vertebrates. It is also used at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals. Iron is the most widely used of all the metals. It is used for the construction of machinery and machine tools, automobiles, the hulls of large ships, and structural components for buildings. Since pure iron is quite soft, it is most commonly used in the form of steel. Iron catalysts are traditionally used in the Haber-Bosch Process for the production of ammonia and the Fischer-Tropsch process for conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons for fuels and lubricants. Powdered iron in an acidic solvent was used in the Bechamp reduction the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. Iron(III) chloride finds use in water purification and sewage treatment, in the dyeing of cloth, as a coloring agent in paints, as an additive in animal feed, and as an etchant for copper in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. Iron(II) sulfate is used as a precursor to other iron compounds. It is also used to reduce chromate in cement. It is also used to fortify foods and treat iron deficiency anemia.

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Lead is a main-group element. It is also counted as one of the heavy metals. It is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shots, weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible alloys and as a radiation shield. It is also used as electrodes in the process of electrolysis. Lead compounds are used as a coloring element in ceramic glazes, notably in the colors red and yellow. It is frequently used in polyvinyl chloride plastic, which coats electrical cords. Lead, at certain exposure levels, is a poisonous substance to animals. It damages the nervous system and causes brain disorders. Excessive lead also causes blood disorders in mammals. It is restricted under the RoHS directive.

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Neon is a inert noble gas under standard conditions. It is commercially extracted from air, in which it is found in trace amounts. It is often used in signs and produces an unmistakable bright reddish-orange light. It is used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, television tubes, and helium-neon lasers.

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