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Carbon is nonmetallic and tetravalent-making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. The major economic use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil (petroleum). Crude oil is used by the petrochemical industry to produce, amongst others, gasoline and kerosene, through a distillation process, in refineries. Cellulose is a natural, carbon-containing polymer produced by plants in the form of cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose is mainly used for maintaining structure in plants. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. It can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils used for writing and drawing. It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment, as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming, in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink, artist's oil paint and water colours, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner. It is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Carbon acts as a macronutrient for the body, and is thus greatly required.

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Cerium is the most abundant of the rare earth elements. It is found in a number of minerals, the most important being monazite and bastnasite. It was named after the dwarf planet Ceres. Commercial applications of cerium are numerous. They include catalysts, additives to fuel to reduce emissions and to glass and enamels to change their color. Cerium oxide is an important component of glass polishing powders and phosphors used in screens and fluorescent lamps.


Cobalt is found naturally only in chemically combined form. It is used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. Cobalt silicate and cobalt(II) aluminate give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, smalt, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. Lithium cobalt oxide is widely used in lithium ion battery cathodes. Several cobalt compounds are used in chemical reactions as oxidation catalysts. Other uses of cobalt are in electroplating, owing to its attractive appearance, hardness and resistance to oxidation, and as ground coats for porcelain enamels.

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Copper is a ductile metal, with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys. Copper compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris. Decorative art prominently features copper, both by itself and as part of pigments. Copper(II) ions are water-soluble, where they function at low concentration as bacteriostatic substances, fungicides, and wood preservatives. In sufficient amounts, they are poisonous to higher organisms; at lower concentrations it is an essential trace nutrient to all higher plant and animal life. The main areas where copper is found in animals are tissues, liver, muscle and bone.

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Cumene is an organic compound that is based on an aromatic hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution. It is a constituent of crude oil and refined fuels,in manufacture of phenol, acetone, acetophenone, and methylstyrene.Cumene is a constituent of crude oil and finished fuels. It is released to the environment as a result of its production and processing from petroleum refining, the evaporation and combustion of petroleum products, and by the use of a variety of products containing cumene.

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Curium is a synthetic radioactive transuranic element. It was named after Marie Sklodowska Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Curium periodic table element is named after chemist and physicist Marie Curie. Curium was identified by Glenn Seaborg, Ralph James and Albert Ghiorso in 1944 at the wartime metallurgical laboratory at the University of Chicago. Its production was the result of helium-ion bombardment of radioactive element Plutonium-239. Curium is highly radioactive. As a metal, it is lustrous and silvery. It is malleable, chemically reactive and electropositive. Its surface rapidly oxidizes in air, gaining a thin film. In dilute solutions, it dissolves rapidly to form Cm (III) solutions. Curium metal exists in two crystal structures double-hexagonal close-packed, face-centered cubic close-packed.

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Cyclam is macrocyclic ligand which is capable of binding to metal cations. It is a close relative of cyclen.

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Durene is an aromatic hydrocarbon used as a solvent. It is also an intermediate in the manufacture of pyromellitic acid, which is used for manufacturing curing agents, adhesives and coating materials. It is used in the manufacture of some raw materials for engineering plastics (polyimides) and cross-linking agent for alkyd resins.

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Erbium is a rare earth element which is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden. It is commonly used as a photographic filter, and because of its resilience it is useful as a metallurgical additive. It is also used in nuclear technology in neutron-absorbing control rods. When added to vanadium as an alloy, erbium lowers hardness and improves work ability. Erbium oxide has a pink color, and is sometimes used as a colorant for glass, cubic zirconia and porcelain. The glass is then often used in sunglasses and cheap jewelry. Erbium-doped optical silica-glass fibers are the active element in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, which are widely used in optical communications. A large variety of medical applications utilize erbium ion's 2940 nm emission, which is highly absorbed in water. Such shallow tissue deposition of laser energy is necessary for laser surgery, and the efficient production of steam for laser enamel ablation in dentistry.

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