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Indium is a post-transition metal. It was discovered in 1863 and named for the indigo blue line in its spectrum that was the first indication of its existence in zinc ores, as a new and unknown element. Its current primary application is to form transparent electrodes from indium tin oxide in liquid crystal displays and touchscreens, and this use largely determines its global mining production. It is widely used in thin-films to form lubricated layers. It is also used for making particularly low melting point alloys, and is a component in some lead-free solders.

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Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants. Inulin is increasingly used in processed foods because it has unusually adaptable characteristics. Its flavour ranges from bland to subtly sweet .It can be used to replace sugar, fat, and flour.

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Iodine occurs mainly as a diatomic molecule I2, not the atom. In nature, iodine is a relatively rare element, ranking 47th in abundance. It is the heaviest essential element utilized widely by life in biological functions. As a component of thyroid hormones, iodine is required by higher animals. Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition, the production of acetic acid and polymers. Iodine's relatively high atomic number, low toxicity, and ease of attachment to organic compounds have made it a part of many X-ray contrast materials in modern medicine. The major application of iodine is as a co-catalyst for the production of acetic acid by the Monsanto and Cativa processes. The production of ethylenediammonium diiodide (EDDI) consumes a large fraction of available iodine. EDDI is provided to livestock as a nutritional supplement. Elemental iodine is used as a disinfectant in various forms.

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Ketone any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group in which the carbon atom is covalently bonded to an oxygen atom.Ketones differ from aldehydes in that the carbonyl is placed between two carbons rather than at the end of a carbon skeleton. Ketones are trigonal planar about the ketonic carbon, with C-C-O and C-C-C bond angles of approximately 120°.Ketones are produced on massive scales in industry as solvents, polymer precursors, and pharmaceuticals.

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L-MODU™ is a superior polyolefin from Idemitsu that comes in a range of grades having lower melting points and a wide range of viscosities.

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Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt. Historically it has been used for plating metals such as iron and brass, for chemical apparatus, and in certain alloys such as German silver. It is still used for corrosion-resistant pure-nickel plating. As a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation. Enzymes of some microorganisms and plants contain nickel as an active center, which makes the metal an essential nutrient for them. It is used in many industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, coinage, rechargeable batteries, electric guitar strings, microphone capsules, and special alloys.

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The heart of the Olgonesm process is a high-performance, highly stable catalyst. Olgone is designed to significantly extend the cycle length of existing clay treaters, which will reduce the amount of spent clay that is generated.

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Osmium is the densest natural element. It is found in nature as an alloy, mostly in platinum ores. Because of the volatility and extreme toxicity of its oxide, osmium is rarely used in its pure state, and is instead often alloyed with other metals. Those alloys are employed in fountain pen tips, electrical contacts and in other applications where extreme durability and hardness are needed.

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Oxygen is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, and is a highly reactive nonmetallic period 2 element that readily forms compounds with almost all other elements. It was independently discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774, but Priestley is often given priority because his work was published first. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. Uptake of oxygen from the air is the essential purpose of respiration, so oxygen supplementation is used in medicine. Treatment not only increases oxygen levels in the patient's blood, but has the secondary effect of decreasing resistance to blood flow in many types of diseased lungs, easing work load on the heart. Oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema, pneumonia, some heart disorders, some disorders that cause increased pulmonary artery pressure, and any disease that impairs the body's ability to take up and use gaseous oxygen. Other uses of oxygen include the production of steel, plastics and textiles, rocket propellant, and life support in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving.

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