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Krypton

Krypton is a noble gas, occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere, is isolated by fractionally distilling liquified air, and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. Krypton's multiple emission lines make ionized krypton gas discharges appear whitish, which in turn makes krypton-based bulbs useful in photography as a brilliant white light source. It is thus used in some types of photographic flashes used in high speed photography. It has an important role in production and usage of the krypton fluoride laser. The laser has been important in the nuclear fusion energy research community in confinement experiments. In experimental particle physics, liquid krypton is used to construct quasi-homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeters.

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Lithium

Lithium is a metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Lithium niobate is used extensively in telecommunication products such as mobile phones and optical modulators, for such components as resonant crystals. Lithium is also used in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industry in the manufacture of organolithium reagents, which are used both as strong bases and as reagents for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Organolithium compounds are also used in polymer synthesis as catalysts/initiators in anionic polymerization of unfunctionalized olefins. Lithium compounds continue to be the gold standard for the treatment of bipolar disorder and are helpful for related diagnoses, such as schizoaffective disorder and cyclic major depression.

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Mercury

Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. It is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures. A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps, while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy. Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood. The element mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams. Mercury, as thiomersal, is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. The largest use of mercury in the late 20th century was in the mercury cell process where metallic sodium is formed as an amalgam at a cathode made from mercury; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce sodium hydroxide. Historically, mercury was used extensively in hydraulic gold mining in order to help the gold to sink through the flowing water-gravel mixture. RoHS bans mercury from certain electrical and electronic products, and limits the amount of mercury in other products to less than 1000 ppm.

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Methane

Methane is the simplest alkane, and the principal component of natural gas. Burning methane in the presence of oxygen produces carbon dioxide and water. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel. Methane was discovered and isolated by Alessandro Volta between 1776 and 1778 when studying marsh gas from Lake Maggiore. It is important for electrical generation by burning it as a fuel in a gas turbine or steam boiler. Methane in the form of compressed natural gas is used as a vehicle fuel, and is claimed to be more environmentally friendly than other fossil fuels such as gasoline/petrol and diesel. It is used in industrial chemical processes and may be transported as a refrigerated liquid. In a highly refined form, liquid methane is used as a rocket fuel.

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Mullite

Mullite occurs as argillaceous inclusions in volcanic rocks in the Isle of Mull. It can form two stoichiometric forms 3Al2O32SiO2 or 2Al2O3 SiO2.Mullite is present in the form of needles in porcelain. It is produced during various melting and firing processes, and is used as a refractory material.

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Naphtha

Naphtha normally refers to a number of flammable liquid mixtures of hydrocarbons, i.e., a component of natural gas condensate or a distillation product from petroleum, coal tar or peat boiling in a certain range and containing certain hydrocarbons. It is a broad term covering among the lightest and most volatile fractions of the liquid hydrocarbons in petroleum.

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Niobium

Niobium is a ductile transition metal. It is found in the minerals pyrochlore, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite. It is used mostly in alloys, the largest part in special steel such as that used in gas pipelines. The temperature stability of niobium-containing superalloys is important for its use in jet and rocket engines. Niobium is used in various superconducting materials. Other applications of niobium include its use in welding, nuclear industries, electronics, optics, numismatics and jewelry. In the last two applications, niobium's low toxicity and ability to be colored by anodization are particular advantages.

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