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Silanol is the simplest silicon alcohol, and is a heavy, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid. Silanols are compounds containing silicon atoms to which hydroxyl substituents bond directly. They are similar to alcohols just as silanes are similar to alkanes. Silanols exist not only as chemical compounds but also on the surface of silica. From the viewpoint of organometallic chemistry, silica can be considered as an enormous ligand, and it is used as support for catalysts of many reactions. In chromatography, derivitization of accessible silanol groups in a bonded stationary phase with trimethylsilyl groups is referred to as endcapping.

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Silicon is the most common metalloid. It has many industrial uses. It is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. It is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a good semiconductor/dielectric interface. In the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics. It is also a constituent of silicones, a class-name for various synthetic plastic substances made of silicon, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, often confused with silicon itself. Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals. It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid forms the basis of the striking array of protective shells of the microscopic diatoms.

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Silvial is a powerful, vibrant muguet ingredient with a slight citrus undertone and a fresh, aldehydic touch that is used in perfumery in the same way as related muguet products.


Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. The presence of the vinyl group allows styrene to polymerize. Commercially significant products include polystyrene, synthetic rubber and resin. Styrene is predominantly used in rubber, plastic, insulation, fiberglass, pipes, automobile and boat parts, food containers, and carpet backing.

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Supra® is a dispersion with high pigment content in non-ionic and anionic dispersants, it is compatible with aqueous systems and does not alter the coating coverage properties. It is designed for in-plant dyeing of emulsified paints and some industrial water-based paints. It is also used in various aqueous systems such as soaps and detergents, school supplies, adhesives, and other products.

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Terbium is a rare earth metal that is malleable,ductile and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime and euxenite. It is used to dope calcium fluoride, calcium tungstate and strontium molybdate, materials that are used in solid-state devices, and as a crystal stabilizer of fuel cells which operate at elevated temperatures. It is also used in alloys and in the production of electronic devices. As a component of Terfenol-D, terbium is of use in actuators, in naval sonar systems and in sensors. Terbium oxide is used in green phosphors in fluorescent lamps and color TV tubes.

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Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive chemical element, found in abundance throughout the world. It was discovered in 1828 and named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. It is a component of the magnesium alloy called Mag-Thor, used in aircraft engines and imparting high strength and creep resistance at elevated temperatures. Thoriated magnesium was used to build the CIM-10 Bomarc missile, although concerns about radioactivity have resulted in several missiles being removed from public display. Thorium is also used as an alloying agent in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the melting temperature of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability. Thorium dioxide and thorium nitrate were used in mantles of portable gas lights, including natural gas lamps, oil lamps and camping lights. These mantles glow with an intense white light when heated in a gas flame, and its color could be shifted to yellow by addition of cerium. Thorium dioxide is a material for heat-resistant ceramics and also has been used as a catalyst in the conversion of ammonia to nitric acid, in petroleum cracking and in producing sulfuric acid. Thorium, as well as uranium and plutonium, can be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor and it is a fertile material, which allows it to be used to produce nuclear fuel in a breeder reactor.

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Thulium is the second least abundant of the lanthanides. It is used as the radiation source in portable X-ray devices and in solid-state lasers. It has been used in high temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium. Thulium potentially has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

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